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FOLKESTONE 
DURING THE WAR: 

A Record of the Town's Life and Work. 



EDITED BY 

J. C. CARLILE, D.D., 

WITH CONTRIBUTIONS BY 

Lieut.-Col. A. Atkinson, A. J. Crowhurst, Eric 

Condy, Captain W. R. Fairbairn, G. W. Haines, 

H.H., E. J. Mackway, Rear-Admiral Yelverton, C.B. 

and the Editor. 



Published by 

F. J. Parsons, Ltd., Folkestone. 






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CONTENTS. 



Page 
Foreword (/. C. Carlile) 4 

Chapter I. — Folkestone, August, 1914, 

(J. C. Carlile) 5 

Chapter II. — Our Belgian Guests (J. C. 

Carlile) 12 

Chapter III. — The Call to the Colours 

{Lieut. -Colonel A % Atkinson, Captain 

W. R. Fairbairn, and G. W. Haines) 36 
Chapter IV. — Shaping the New Army 

(The Editor and Lieut. -Colonel E. M. 

Liddell) 56 

Chapter V. — In Case it Happened (/. C. 

Carlile) ... 72 

Chapter VI.— The Air Raids (A. J. Crowhurst) 87 
Chapter VII. — Care of the Sick and 

Wounded (Various Contributors) ... 131 
Chapter VIII. — Social Life in War Time 

(E. J. Mackway) 145 

Chapter IX. — Canadian Life in Folkestone 

(J. C. Carlile) 160 

Chapter X. — Cross-Channel Service (Rear- 
Admiral Yelverton and Others) ... 186 
Chapter XI. — Providing Silver Bullets 

(J. C. Carlile) 199 

Chapter XII. — The Leas as an Observation 

Post (H. H.) 208 

Chapter XIII. — Work of the Churches 

(Eric Condy) 220 

Chapter XIV.— Heroes Who Did Not 

Return 236 



345608 



FOREWORD. 



This volume is an evidence of local patriotism. It 
was made possible by the public spirit of the writers 
and publishers, to whom the Editor expresses his 
indebtedness. 

No town in England has a record of war work 
comparable with that of Folkestone. The coast-line 
from Dover to Hythe forms a strategic point of vital 
importance. It was not only the nearest to the 
fighting line, but the key-position to England. 
Looking back, it is wonderful to observe how little it 
suffered and how nobly it bore the strain of continual 
anxiety. 

The information contained in the chapters has been 
obtained from official sources, and from those actually 
responsible for the work described. The Editor has 
had the assistance of officials of Government Depart- 
ments, the Consul of France, the Vice-Consul of 
Belgium, Colonel Aytoun, Colonel Wright, Mr. A. F. 
Kidson, Mr. W. H. Routly, Mr. H. Evans, and others, 
in addition to those who have contributed signed 
articles. Mr. A. J. Crowhurst has rendered valuable 
help in revising the proofs, and Mr. Stuart Hills has 
compiled the list of the fallen. 



FOLKESTONE DURING 
THE WAR: 

A Record of the Town's Life and Activities. 



CHAPTER I. 

FOLKESTONE IN 1914. 

By the Editor. 

August, 1914, seems almost prehistoric, so remote 
that it is difficult to reconstruct the period. Yet 
the world went very well then. The Folkestone 
season was opening ; thousands of visitors had flocked 
to the town, attracted by the health-giving qualities 
of the breezes from the sea and the charm of the 
scenery. Passengers crossing from the Continent 
watch for the white cliffs that stand for England. 
How lovely they are to the eyes of wanderers returning 
home. They are as welcome as the grasp of friendship. 
As the ship comes nearer there is the view of the 
Warren — called " Little Switzerland." It is always a 
dream of beauty to lovers of Nature : the cliffs with 
their glory of gold, blue, and white, the wealth of wild 
flowers, the deep ravines ; the beach with its boulders 
flung about as if by giants in their sport ; the growths 
of moss ; sheltered nooks that lovers linger to explore ; 
the trees rich in foliage and music ; and the sea with 
its fantastic crests upon the waves and restless move- 
ment ; all creating an impression upon memory that 
remains among the precious things of life. The 
Warren is always a picture, but hardly ever seen 



b FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

just as it was before. Visitors continually remark 
how changed it is since they last saw it. They are 
right ; it is ever changing ; the peculiar charm it pos- 
sesses is the creation of the light over the haze that 
hangs about its depths and pools of fresh water, 
continually being transformed into suggestions of 
unsuspected beauty. 

On the other side of the Harbour there is the long 
stretch of the Leas. There England is green to the 
sea ; the varied heights connected by the narrow 
winding paths between the trees, the resting-places of 
birds in song. The charm of the Lower Road is in 
danger of being marred by the stalls of the traders that 
dot the beach like rabbit hutches in a back garden. The 
road, with the old Toll-house and gate, and Sandgate 
Castle at the end, makes one of the prettiest picture 
postcards in the country. The steep cliffs and cable 
elevators remind one of Swiss scenery. Above, there 
is the table-land of the Leas, one of the finest pro- 
menades by the sea to be found in England, and one 
of the most popular health resorts in the world. The 
air has the scent of the flowers and the firs, mingled 
with the salt of the sea. On the Leas there is the 
strong tonic of the breeze ; down on the Lower 
Road, sheltered from the winds, there is a warmer 
climate, so welcome to the invalid, and all round there 
is the panorama of beauty. 

The Harbour is always a source of interest. Fishing- 
boats come and go with their copper-coloured sails. 
The Market, with its quaint background of little 
cottages built into the cliff, tells a bit of history to 
any who care to learn. The Harbour is one of the 
main entrances to England, a favourite place for 



FOLKESTONE IN I9I4. 7 

sea anglers, and those who find delight in watching 
the passing show of many-sided humanity never fail 
to discover a new phase. 

The Leas presented an animated picture in July, 
1914. All varieties of fashion were represented 
along the famous promenade. The band — one of 
the best in the country — played at the end of the 
Leas, between the Hotels Metropole and Grand. 
Behind, the hills stretched in their varied loveliness ; 
Caesar's Camp and Sugar Loaf stood out in all their 
glory of living green. The sky was as near the 
Mediterranean blue as one was likely to see in England. 
The ships going up and down the Channel provided 
endless interest and speculation ; the sea was as calm 
as a mill-pond, and down the picturesque slope 
from the Leas to the beach the birds sang in the 
fir-trees, and the children played among the bracken. 
Little did the happy throng of visitors dream that, 
just across the Channel, were all the preparations 
for a great War, that would outrage Belgium, and 
lay waste the fair fields of France ; and that Britain 
within a few days would be plunged into a conflict 
such as the world had never known. It is a happy 
arrangement that humans are unable to read the 
future. Could the veil have been lifted, there would 
have been no sound of laughter on the Leas ; the joy 
would have gone from the faces of the girls, and the 
frivolity from the talk of the boys. 

The retired captains played their golf in the morn- 
ing, slept in the afternoon, managed to get a rubber 
of bridge in the evening, or occupied themselves 
with a discussion of the morning game and a pipe. 
The admirals who had been on half-pay for more 



8 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

years than ladies cared to remember strolled down 
to the seats by the Shelter, and swept the sea with 
their glasses, discussed the character of the craft, 
then read their papers and dozed. 

Very few people had any conception of the approach 
of the War. True, Admiral Penrose-Fitzgerald 
and some others were quite sure that Germany in- 
tended War with France, and ultimately the invasion 
of England. The gallant Admiral had written and 
spoken upon the subject ; but men smiled and thought 
him a crank. For the rest, the politicians and the 
public did not dream that the assassination of the 
heir to the Austrian throne and his consort would be 
made, not the reason, but the excuse, for Germany's 
ruthless campaign for world-power. 

When the possibility of War became clear, there 
was great anxiety in Folkestone. There were many 
German and Austrian residents ; scarcely one of the 
hotels or larger pensions was without Germans on 
the staff. One place of worship had a German Bible 
Class, with more than eighty members and associates. 
These men, all of military age, were teachers and better- 
class waiters. To them, the prospect of war was a 
very real thing, and when the message came for them 
to leave the country the "Good-byes " were most 
affecting. It was said that a ship-load of enemy 
aliens was detained until war was actually declared, 
and then carried round to a neighbouring port to be 
interned for the duration of the war, greatly to the 
satisfaction of the prisoners. 

When the news came, on August 4th, that England 
was at war, it seemed as the falling of a bolt from the 
blue. English people knew nothing of the actuality 




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FOLKESTONE IN I914. 9 

of a great war. The South African affair was child's 
play in comparison with what everybody recognised 
would happen if the most powerful Empires in the 
world faced each other in deadly conflict. We knew 
enough of Germany to know that she would fight with 
desperation ; that her plans had been well laid, and 
nothing left to chance. The honest efforts of Sir 
Edward Grey to preserve Peace ended in failure. 
The responsibility rested with the Kaiser and his 
advisers, and rightly upon them the Nemesis of Fate 
has fallen. 

The news of war cleared the town of Folkestone 
as effectively as though a plague had desolated her 
homes. The ' ' knuts ' ' left the Leas ; there was a 
return to town. Within a few days 285 German 
reservists arrived at the Harbour to join the Kaiser's 
forces. They were detained on the ground that the 
time allowed for enemy aliens to leave the country 
had expired ; they did not seem distressed by the 
news. An escort was sent down from the camp, and 
the prisoners were marched along Sandgate Road, and 
finally sent to very comfortable quarters at Christ's 
Hospital School, Horsham. 

Within seven days of the Declaration of War Folke- 
stone was made a prohibited area. All aliens were 
required to register and satisfy the Chief Constable 
as to their reasons for wishing to remain in the town. 
During the first week more than 1,000 aliens applied 
for permits. 

Patriotic demonstrations were held, and many 
men joined the colours. The Folkestone Territorials 
were invited to volunteer for service abroad, and 
quite a large percentage — officers and men — readily 



10 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

responded to the call of the country. The local 
R.A.M.C. rapidly prepared for work in the field, and 
offered to go wherever they might be required. The 
old officers got in communication with the War Office, 
to offer their services. Shorncliffe Camp bristled 
with activity. It was rumoured that Folkestone 
might expect invasion by the German Fleet ; that 
there would be attempts to land a force somewhere 
between Dover and the town. The air was thick 
with alarms. There was a vague dread of something 
terrible — nobody quite knew what. The strain was very 
great, but during those days, before the town became 
used to war, it was very noticeable that, beneath 
the surface excitement and anxiety, the people mani- 
fested a strong confidence in the righteousness of the 
nation's cause, and an unconscious assurance that it 
would be all right. There was no panic ; no shrinking 
from duty ; just a buzz of excitement, a ripple of un- 
certainty, and an undercurrent of strength. 

The band discoursed upon the Leas, but the gay 
crowd was not there. The boys were enlisting ; 
they were exchanging the immaculate collars and 
cuffs for the soldier's garb. Women were asking 
what they could do, and were preparing for manifold 
kinds of service. The trade of the hotel proprietors 
and boarding-house keepers was at a standstill, and 
the outlook was very dark. The sunshine on the 
cliffs had still its glories of gold and blue. The Lower 
Road was as beautiful as before, and the birds sang 
just as sweetly ; Nature was all unconscious of the 
havoc man would make in the frenzy of war. 

The town was the same, but life had changed from 
those old days when the visitors leisurely walked 



FOLKESTONE IN I914. II 

round the Parish Church and heard the stories of its 
associations with the famous Monastery for black nuns 
of the Benedictine Order, founded by St. Eanswyth, 
daughter of Eadbald, King of Kent. The coming 
of war cleared the roads of the pleasure cars that 
used to run by River and through the lovely 
country to Canterbury, the cradle of English 
history. The sportsmen no longer followed the 
hounds ; they went to face the Huns. The days 
became serious, men looked over the sea with a touch 
of apprehension, and before the end of the year the 
light of the moon was no longer a delight. The little 
comedy of life was blotted out by the tragedy of war. 



CHAPTER II. 

OUR BELGIAN GUESTS. 
By the Editor. 

England's first actual contact with the grim horrors 
of war was in Folkestone, about August 20th, when 
boats came into the harbour crowded with Refugees 
from gallant little Belgium. The earliest arrivals 
came in fishing craft and coal carriers. The visitors 
were terror-stricken, and many of them absolutely 
refused to leave the boats. The news of the coming 
of the Belgians was not made public until eight or 
nine days later, when it appeared in the Press. 

It is impossible to tell who were the first good 
Samaritans to minister to the poor souls who had 
fallen among thieves and been stripped of their belong- 
ings. Probably the honour is shared among a few 
unnamed fisher-people, whose generosity is only 
surpassed by their courage. They knew the facts 
and saw the conditions of the people on the boats, 
and came to their assistance. They called in the aid 
of two local Ministers, who joined in the efforts to 
provide hospitality ; but the need grew as if by magic. 
Within a few days thousands of destitute Belgian 
people had arrived, and created problems of their 
own. Their primary needs of food and shelter brooked 
no delay. Each boat brought a cargo of huddled 
humanity like dumb-driven cattle ; they had fled 
from coast towns and cities outraged by the invader. 
Their plight was pitiful. Some had been in the train 



OUR BELGIAN GUESTS. 13 

for a day and a night ; others on the road for several 
days, with but little food. Few had any clothing, 
except the garments they were wearing. One white- 
haired old dame came in carpet slippers, not having 
been able to secure her boots, in the hurry and panic 
to escape the Hun. 

Folkestone was very soon the only open door to 
England, and the suppliants on her doorstep seeking 
food and protection represented all classes of the 
community. Their presence was our first glimpse 
of the terrible reality of war. They brought home to 
the people, in dramatic form, the meaning of the 
struggle in which the Empire was engaged. The scenes 
on the Harbour were too heartrending to be repro- 
duced in words. There were men, honoured and 
revered in their own land, driven into poverty and 
exile, not for any offence of their own, or their 
country's, but simply because their little land was 
geographically the bufter-nation between Germany 
and her coveted victim. The Belgian Prime Minister 
spoke for the people when he said : " Faced with 
the choice between what her own immediate interests 
seemed to dictate and what honour demanded, Bel- 
gium did not hesitate. " " The Belgian Government 
is determined to resist any attack upon its rights 
by every means at its disposal. ' ' King Albert nobly 
declared : "A people which is true to itself may be 
conquered, but cannot be subdued. ' ' 

One of the Refugees from Louvain told of nameless 
things. He described how the Prussians entered 
his home, dragged him forth with his family, and 
pinned him to the wall with a bayonet, compelling 
him to direct their search for money and valuables ; 



14 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

and when these had been taken, and all the domestic 
treasures carried off as loot, the furniture was smashed, 
thrown into a pile, and the house burned to the ground, 
leaving the family in despair and desolation on the 
road. 

There were mothers who had been hounded from 
home and country before they could gather the little 
ones to their arms. Their agony was intensified 
by the uncertainty of the fate of their children, and all 
means of communication were cut off. There were 
girls with flushed cheeks and wild, terrified eyes, 
whose story others whispered under their breath. 
They were the victims of German lust. They shrank 
in horror from the thought that they might become 
the unwilling mothers of the enemy's children. And 
there on the quay was the most pathetic sight of all — 
little children stood clinging to big sisters for protection, 
or holding mother's dress with trembling fingers. 
They drew back in fear at the sound of a stranger's 
voice, as dogs shrink from those they distrust. 

It is impossible to behold such sights and ever 
forget, and very difficult ever to forgive. 

Folkestone represented the Empire in receiving 
her hapless visitors. Before any formal organisation 
was brought into existence, there was the operation 
of spontaneous sympathy responding to the urgency 
of need. Fishermen's homes were opened to people 
whose language they could not understand. Poor 
families shared with their strange guests, and some 
gave up their beds, counting it an honour to sleep on 
the floor that the exiles might spend the night in the 
comfort of home. 

On the 24th of August, 1914, was constituted a 



OUR BELGIAN GUESTS. 15 

Belgian Committee for Refugees, from a body of men 
who had been giving help for some days. It was 
officially instituted at the French Protestant Church, 
Victoria Grove, by a Belgian Vice-Consul from London. 
The President was a Belgian Folkestone resident, who 
soon afterwards became Belgium's representative. 

Mr. H. Froggatt, one of the masters of the Grammar 
School, brought together a few boys who could 
speak French. They acted as guides to little 
groups of Refugees on their way to the homes 
where they could be received. The sight of those 
straggling companies of strangers going along the 
streets with their scanty belongings in bundles they 
would not trust to other hands presented a picture 
Time will never obliterate from memory. The pathos 
and comedy of it all were strangely blended. Like 
frightened animals, the new-comers refused to be 
separated, chosing rather to endure the discomfort of 
spending the night together in an overcrowded room 
than occupy separate apartments and sleep in 
comfort. They realised they were among friends, 
and their peril was past, but the strain had been too 
great. They laughed and wept, repeatedly embraced 
their children, and then kissed each other. It was as 
an awakening from a bad dream. 

A Refugees Relief Committee was formed. The 
original members were : — 

The Mayor (Sir Stephen Penfold). 

Mr. Alderman Spurgen (Deputy-Mayor). 

Mr. Alderman Bishop. 

The Rev. J. C. Carlile. 

Mr. V. D. de Wet. 

Mr. Drummond Hay. 



1 6 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

Madame Finez. 

Mr. G. Gelardi. 

Mrs. Penrose-FitzGerald. 

Mr. F. Ronco. 

Mrs. Bishop. 

The Very Rev. Monsgr. C. Coote (became a 
member later). 

Chevalier d'Ydewalle. 

Mrs. Drummond Hay. 

Mr. Councillor Franks. 

Mr. A. F. Kidson (Town Clerk). 

Pasteur A. Peterson. 

Mr. W. H. Routly (Borough Treasurer), Hon. 
Sec. 

Dr. Yunge-Bateman (Medical Officer of Health). 
The Committee set to work to provide food and 
shelter. Some of the Churches undertook the respon- 
sibility 'of collecting food required upon certain days 
of the week ; but the task was far beyond their powers. 
Hotel proprietors gave generously, and shopkeepers 
readily joined in the effort ; boarding-house proprietors 
lent or gave clothing, and beds were made up in Church 
halls and public schools. " The Times" and other 
journals appealed for funds and garments. The 
response was immediate and very generous. The town 
spoke, not for herself, but for the larger community, 
and her message Was one of good cheer. The business 
methods of the Committee were exceedingly good. 
Expert advice was called in, and the Government sent 
down advisers to co-operate in the colossal task 
presented by many thousands of destitute people. 

As the boats arrived a company of ladies met the 
Refugees with food and hot drinks, so that those who 




Photo] [Halksworth Wheeler. 

Belgian Refugees Arriving. 




Photo] [Halksworth Wheeler. 

Belgian Pays Homage to English Girl. 



OUR BELGIAN GUESTS. 17 

were entrained and passed on to other towns might 
have refreshment on their journey. The magnitnde 
of this branch of the work has not been realized. It 
became too expensive for the local Committee : 
441,860 meals were served to Belgian soldiers apart 
from the food distributed to civilians. Large quantities 
of sandwiches were handed into trains. The Local 
Government Board undertook the arrangements and 
the cost, with Miss Ivy Weston, the Misses Spurgen. 
Miss Coop, and other ladies as voluntary workers, 
Many men and women gave their services as inter- 
preters, and rendered valuable assistance in supplying 
information. 

There were strange tangles to be unravelled. 
Husbands and wives became separated from each 
other, and had not the least idea of what had happened. 
In many cases the wife thought the husband dead, 
killed in the defence of his town. One instance, as 
an illustration, may be recalled. Edward de Neve, 
a Belgian soldier, was wounded in the knee, and 
sent to England. His brother was thought to have 
been killed at Antwerp, and the supposed widow 
arrived in Folkestone, desolate in her grief. Enquiries 
were made concerning the brother. It was thought 
he had been sent to Cambridge, but there no such 
person was known. They had, however, passed on 
to another hospital a soldier bearing the same name, 
who turned out to be the husband of the poor woman 
who was seeking to find her brother-in-law. Her 
joy upon the discovery of her husband knew no 
bounds. 

Correspondence poured in to individual members 
of the Committee. One of them received repeated 



10 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

applications for particulars concerning cases of 
Belgian children whose hands had been cut off by the 
Germans. An eminent surgeon wrote that he was 
extremely anxious to find such a case, purely from a 
surgical point of view, in order to try a new invention 
of artificial hands which would be of enormous advan- 
tage to a child in this condition. No such cases could 
be found in Folkestone, much to the disappointment of 
correspondents. From an "American" came an 
offer of £1,000 for anyone who could bring forward 
a child with hands mutilated by Germans. Later 
it was discovered that the offer was made by 
agents of Germany, well aware that such cases could 
not be found in England ! Many letters were received 
containing donations for the fund. They were full 
of generous sympathy ; labourers and servant-maids 
sent their shillings, and wealthy donors contributed 
large cheques. Poor people sent part of their clothing, 
literally fulfilling the ideal requirement of the Sermon 
on the Mount. Offers of hospitality came from all 
over the country. Professional men invited members 
of their own class to share their homes. Churches of 
all creeds offered to set up hostels and guest-houses, 
which were of the greatest value. Many of these 
institutions have been maintained all through the 
War. At first the appeal had the glamour of novelty 
and War Funds were few ; but as the years passed the 
Belgian became a more familiar figure, and the need 
was greatly lessened by employment being obtained 
for those able to work ; but there were still many 
incapacitated by age or infirmity for the ordinary 
avocations of life. They have been maintained, so 
that, as M. Charles Dessain, the gallant Burgomaster 



OUR BELGIAN GUESTS. 1 9 

of Malines, speaking at Folkestone, said : ' ' When I 
asked the Belgians who were here if they wanted 
anything, they answered : No. Everything we want 
is given us, and our very wishes are forestalled. ' ' 

An important part of the work was the first care of 
the sick. Many old people were utterly prostrate after 
their journey, others suffered from nerve shock, and 
some were ailing. Those were cared for in the old 
Grammar School House, which was turned into a 
Hospital and Night Hostel. About sixty persons each 
night slept in the dormitories. About 300 patients were 
treated. Miss M. A. Parsons was in charge, assisted by 
Nurse Wilson, two V.A.D.'s and Miss Parsons. The 
work was entirely voluntary. 

The poorer people of the fishing class who came over 
the sea in trawlers and coal boats would not leave the 
Harbour. They were afraid to trust themselves on 
shore. The Hon. Rose Hubbard and other ladies 
went to them and found means to win their confidence 
and then to get them to land. 

The Relief Committee divided up into a number of 
Sub-Committees dealing with the provision of clothing 
for the Refugees who were living in the town and for 
those passing through it who were in need ; the collec- 
tion and distribution of food ; financial assistance to 
families whose means were exhausted or insufficient ; 
the care of women during confinement ; the provision 
of free hospitality in other parts of the country. The 
great majority of the Refugees, when they landed at 
the Harbour, were practically destitute. They were 
taken to St. Michael's Hall, where a substantial meal 
was served, and where those who were insufficiently 
clad were provided with clothing. Many residents 



20 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

worked long hours at the Hall, and were prepared to 
undertake any menial service if they could add to the 
comfort of their poor guests. As the worked developed 
the premises known as the old Harvey Grammar School, 
comprising a large house and a number of class-rooms, 
were placed by the Corporation at the disposal of the 
Committee. The class-rooms were used as reception 
and registration halls, and fitting-rooms where persons 
were supplied with the garments they needed. The 
rooms in the house were used as dormitories ; but of 
course this large provision was but a fraction of what 
was required, and lodgings were obtained without 
payment in all parts of the town. Even then the need 
was not met, and small sums were paid to those who 
were unable to offer free hospitality. Great numbers 
of Refugees were drafted on to other parts of the 
country. It was no small business to register the new 
arrivals, and to secure their passage to their destination. 
Employers in other parts of the country offered 
work for those who were skilled in various branches of 
industry, and to the honour of the Belgian working- 
classes, the Committee records the fact that the 
majority of them were more anxious to obtain employ- 
ment, that they might support themselves, than to 
remain in idleness receiving charity. Many were 
engaged in hop-picking, and in the orchards of Kent. 
In Folkestone and other towns, shop-keepers were 
glad to be able to put up a notice to the effect that 
French was spoken behind the counter. This provided 
employment for a considerable number of the shop 
assistant class. Schools offered to receive teachers, 
and the Universities gave generous hospitality to 
members of the teaching profession unable to find 



OUR BELGIAN GUESTS. 21 

employment. In all cases where employment was found 
through the Folkestone Committee, careful enquiries 
were made as to the rates of wages, so that there 
should be no trouble with the Labour Organizations, 
and that the Refugees should be protected against any 
exploitation of their labour, though that was hardly 
necessary. 

The provision of garments occupied a great deal of 
the Committee's attention. The Refugees came 
with the clothes they stood up in ; and as the winter 
approached their condition was critical. Many of the 
better-class people wore their summer clothing far 
into the winter rather than ask for assistance. Resi- 
dents of the town found ways of supplying clothing 
without offending the finer feelings. Beautiful things 
were done which may not be recorded. It was calcu- 
lated that 15,000 Belgians were living in the town 
whose need of warm clothing was apparent. A special 
appeal was made through the Press, and the require- 
ments were met. The Committee determined that their 
guests in social positions of influence in their own 
country should not be offered second-hand garments, 
but should be enabled to purchase in the ordinary way 
from the Stores. One-third of the price was contributed 
by the Committee. Large quantities of food were 
received from all over the country, and proved very 
acceptable. 

The first arrivals from Belgium brought with them 
a woman who had become a mother on the journey 
across the Channel. She was taken to the hospital 
with her little baby, and cared for, the child becoming 
strong and bonny. 

A pathetic little object, named Elizabeth, was born 



22 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

on Ostend quay, and brought to Folkestone in an 
open fishing boat. The baby only weighed 2lbs. 40ZS. 
It was the general opinion that she could not live, 
but, thanks to excellent nursing, she grew into an 
exceedingly pretty and healthy child. 

Mrs. Linington became responsible for three beds 
in a small room in the Royal Victoria Hospital. 
This was the origin of the Maternity Home. It was 
afterwards removed to Bournemouth Road. Twenty- 
three babies were born and cared for. Each baby 
and mother leaving the institution received a com- 
plete outfit of clothes. Many ladies were interested in 
mothering the little ones, and were not slow to perceive 
the need of extending the work of the Maternity Home. 
Another house, under the direction of Mrs. Muir, 
was opened, and ministered to the needs of 
mothers in their hour of trial. Local medical men 
gave their services, and throughout the War there has 
been no lack of accommodation for women who were 
expecting to become mothers. Princess Clementine, 
upon her visit to Folkestone, went through two of the 
Maternity Homes, and expressed her gratitude and 
delight. It was good to see the babies in mothers' 
arms, and the happiness of the women who had 
found, not a haven of refuge, but a real home, 
with women who were their friends. One of the best 
forms of social ministry during the War was the 
Maternity Home, and to it not a few women owe their 
lives and the lives of their children. Some odd things 
happened in this connection. A little child of Belgian 
parents, sent on from Folkestone, was born at 
Yarmouth, and named by the priest; afterwards it 
was discovered that the parents were Protestants. 



OUR BELGIAN GUESTS. 23 

The authorities objected ; the baby had been christened 
and could not be christened a second time. There 
seemed to be no way of rectifying the mistake, 
until the mother was able to assert her own rights, 
and the child was probably not less happy in having 
been christened upon two occasions, though he was 
quite unique. 

The Local Government Board sent representatives 
to take charge of the organisation. Mr. Basil Williams 
and Mr. Franklin did much to overcome the difficulties 
of providing food and housing for thousands of exiles 
who might arrive during the day or night with no 
longer notice than the sighting of the ship's signals. 

The Acting Secretary of the Committee, Mr. Toke. 
was far too modest to make much of his office, though 
every worker knew that he was behind all the 
machinery as chief engineer. There were many 
residents who gave of their time and money without 
hesitation, but practically all Folkestone was a War 
Relief Committee ; only a small part of the hospitality 
could be chronicled as going through organised 
agencies. Madame Peterson brought together a group 
of Belgian women of social influence who formed a 
working party to provide comforts for men at the 
Front. During the years of war, bales of garments have 
regularly been dispatched upon their ministry of good 
cheer. Mrs. Penrose FitzGerald never seemed to tire 
in her efforts for the exiles ; to her ingenious initiative 
could be traced ways and means of raising money and 
adding to the comfort of the poor people under her care. 
The late Mrs. Ambler and Mrs. Jones had charge of the 
first hostel at the old Grammar School ; Mrs. Carlile 
had rooms set apart at her private residence for fitting 



24 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

garments. The Baptist Women's League and other 
friends, in response to an appeal, sent over five 
thousand articles of wearing apparel. 

There was considerable difficulty with the Belgians 
who possessed money in getting it changed. The 
Committee secured the assistance of the Central 
Organization in London and the Banks, so that the 
exchange rates were not unnecessarily low. 

The Belgian Colony in Folkestone soon organized 
its own activities. A College was opened for boys ; 
the Education Committee lent the necessary apparatus, 
and pupils were enabled to continue their studies. A 
number of Catholic clergy took up the work and 
carried it through with ability and devotion. English 
classes for adults had many students who forgot the 
tedium of their exile in their efforts to master irregular 
verbs. A Literary Circle met frequently to exchange 
ideas and become acquainted with the great masters 
of prose. Literature has ever been the means of 
international goodwill, and was never more enjoyed 
than by the English-Belgian group, meeting under 
such tragic conditions by the fringe of the sea. 

The Refugees represented all sections of the com- 
munity, from the zealous patriots to the Germanised 
renegades — all sorts and conditions, good, bad and 
indifferent, came to our shores. 

Messrs. Bobby & Co. generously placed at the 
disposal of the Belgians a block of seven houses in 
Sandgate Road, and these were used for official 
purposes. 

The Belgian Vice-Consul, M. Peterson, was one of the 
discoveries of the war. When Sir Charles Allom 
suggested to the Belgian Legation in London that the 




Photo] [Halksworth Wheeler. 

First Three Babies Born in Belgian Maternity 
Home. 




Photo] [Halksuorth Wheeler 

Children's Ward in Belgian Refugees Home. 



OUR BELGIAN GUESTS. 25 

Pastor of the local Huguenot Church should become 
King Albert's representative he did a good stroke of 
business for the Allies. M. Peterson had no special 
training for the office, but he brought to it considerable 
gifts of insight and administration and a fine quality 
of eloquence. In the early days the Vice-Consul had 
more than ioo interviews per day and dispatched a 
daily average of 50 letters. 

He created and organised all the different Consular 
and Military departments. Folkestone became one of 
the great centres of War activities. The Intelligence 
Offices were in constant communication with Belgium 
and knew all the important movements of the enemy 
in the occupied territory. 

The work of those departments was very much 
greater and far more important than was supposed. 
If we were permitted to tell the whole story, it would 
be a revelation — particularly to Germany. In the 
early months of the War the gallant little army 
defending Belgium suffered terribly, and the numbers 
were sadly depleted, but the supply of young men was 
steadily maintained. 35,000 recruits were enlisted in 
Folkestone, and a large majority of them were men 
who had endured great privations and faced extreme 
dangers in escaping from Belgium through Holland. 
They crept through the German lines and crawled over 
the open spaces of No Man's Land to the electric wire 
enclosing the Dutch frontier. It is estimated that 
of those who made the great adventure at least one in 
three died or was killed in the attempt, yet 35,000 
reached Folkestone and went back to fight for their 
dear Homeland. 

The Intelligence Department kept the Allies informed 



26 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

of the arrival of enemy forces in Belgium, and tracked 
many spies who came as Refugees. The Department 
has material for the novelist, a shoal of thrilling stories 
of clever inpersonations and arrests ; but they will 
remain secret. 

Before the war Belgium, as England, was over-run by 
German ' ' agents. ' ' One of these came as a professor 
of languages. He told a pathetic story : in early 
life he was in the army and his great regret was that he 
could no longer fight. He became a favourite with 
the soldiers, telling good stories and receiving hospi- 
tality. He was a welcome visitor to the camp, dividing 
his time between watching military manoeuvres and 
writing his experiences in the Public Library. Every- 
body was kind to the poor old professor, who never 
tired of telling his bitter experiences and rubbing his 
hands in delight while he listened to the boys in khaki 
describing their regiments' movements. One night 
he left the Library for his lodgings to discover a man 
in possession of his papers, and two officers with 
revolvers cocked, until he was safely handcuffed. He 
was a first-class Secret Service agent, but his letters had 
been regularly intercepted, and "bluff" communica- 
tions sent instead, by which the enemy was misled all 
the time. 

The story of individual effort, could it be chronicled, 
would reveal a wealth of generous sentiment, expressed 
in beautiful and unostentatious actions, seeking no 
reward but that of doing good. The record of organized 
relief is a distinction to the town and the country. 
It was England's offering to her gallant Allies, who 
seemed at the moment to have lost everything but 
honour and courage. 



OUR BELGIAN GUESTS. 27 

All the local Churches in Folkestone did nobly. The 
Roman Catholic Church opened a club and hostel, 
which became a popular meeting-place and a haven of 
rest for large numbers of Belgians. The Baptist 
Church raised a fund for Protestant Pasteurs who 
were in sore straits. Several of these were enabled to 
remain in the town, and continue their ministry 
among their own people. They established a service in 
French, which was held regularly. Some of the 
Evangelists were supported while they rendered assist- 
ance in other towns to which Belgians had gone. The 
Public Library became a favourite rendezvous for 
the reading class. Its reference department was very 
popular, and won the admiration of professional 
men compelled to be the guests of England. All 
the Churches gave special collections and help of various 
kinds. The Bathing Establishment granted the use 
of their large hall to be used as a Club and Reading 
Room. It was well supplied with newspapers, 
magazines, and playthings for the little people. It 
was very popular, and will remain a pleasant memory 
for many women and children. 

The issue of " Le Franco-Beige" by Messrs. F. J. 
Parsons kept Belgians who were unable to read 
English well informed of the happenings in their own 
land and on the Fronts. News was carried from 
Brussels and other centres. Special couriers came 
and went with the news in their memories. They 
crossed the German lines at the risk of their lives, 
and even printed a special sheet under the feet of 
their oppressors. The Brussels journal was printed 
in a basement under the pathway of one of the most 
frequented streets. 



28 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

A Guild of Good Fellowship was inaugurated, 
enabling soldiers to keep in touch with those they had 
met in the town when on leave. Many pathetic letters 
were sent by boys from the mud of the trenches. 

The work of the Refugees Committee cannot be 
told in statistics, but the figures indicate the magnitude 
of the enterprise. 

The number of grants to assist persons to meet 
their living expenses up to February, 1919, was 6,580. 

The total number of meals supplied to Refugees 
was 115,000. 

Sleeping accommodation was provided for 22,180 
persons. 

The total number of Refugees sent from Folkestone 
at the expense of the British Government was 64,500 ; 
there were 44,000 who passed through the town at 
their own expense. 

It is impossible to record the number of garments 
given ; it reached to hundreds of thousands. The 
amount spent by the Committee up to January 31st, 
1919, was £27,184, of which the Government provided 
more than £20,000. 

The gratitude of the Belgians found expression in 
various ways : in presentations to the Mayor and 
others who were more prominent in the general 
manifestation of hospitality. A tablet was erected in 
the Town Hall, bearing the inscription : — 

To the Town Council of 

FOLKESTONE, 

The Committee, and all who 

worked so devotedly for their 

Relief, this Tribute is 

gratefully offered by the 

BELGIAN WAR REFUGEES. 

1916. 



OUR BELGIAN GUESTS. 20, 

At the unveiling ceremony the Vice-Consul, in a 
memorable utterance, expressed the sentiments of 
the Belgian Government. We venture to reproduce 
the following passages : — 

"We have just been celebrating the anniversary of 
the Independence of Belgium, and we have expressed 
the hope soon to see our native land regain her liberty. 

"We hold the firm conviction that the victorious 
armies of the Allies will bring liberation and happiness 
to our country. 

"We have chosen this day, which inflames our 
pride and exalts our hopes, not to acquit ourselves 
of a duty, but solemnly to declare our deep debt of 
gratitude. 

"I have the honour, Mr. Mayor and Members of 
the Town Council, to ask you to kindly accept, in the 
name of the town, the Memorial Tablet offered by the 
Belgian Ladies' Committee and to which have contri- 
buted the Belgians of Folkestone, in testimony of the 
hospitality given to the refugees by your towns- 
people. 

"Opposite the 'Public Record' of the sons of 
Folkestone who fought for their country in a 
previous war, another tablet is now erected which 
will tell future generations your magnificent work of 
charity. 

"Let me remind you of the hard trial we went 
through : you are too generous to recall it yourselves : 
the sympathetic help that we have found among you. 

" Our little Belgium, confident in the friendship of 
other nations, gladly welcoming everyone, confiding 
in the faith of the treaties, followed fearlessly her 
peaceful destiny. 



30 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

"Suddenly, without cause or pretext, a false and 
barbarous neighbour, tears to pieces the solemn pact 
garanteeing our neutrality, and invades her soil. 

"Their army numbers more soldiers than the whole 
population of Belgium. Our small and gallant army 
works splendidly, but is overwhelmed. Invasion 
follows, with all its horrible consequences. 

" Slaughter, pillage, violence, conflagrations, all the 
evils that our civilisation tried to forget and hoped 
never to see again, are brought back by the methodical 
plan of an enemy to whom terror is a means of 
domination. 

" The Belgians, driven out of their homes, deprived 
of everything, ruined, flee from their destroyed towns 
and villages. 

" The sea is free and guides them to their old and 
trusted protectrice — England. 

" The refugees land by thousands, without bread, 
without clothes, without hope, the soul as suffering 
as the body. 

" Then, Ladies and Gentlemen, it is here that your 
work began. 

" Immediately your compassion awakes. 

" The deeper our misery, the more generous your 
charity, and with this fine business-like spirit which 
makes the strength of your nation, help is 
spontaneously organised. 

" The whole of Folkestone came to our assistance. 

" Lodgings are provided, food is distributed, clothing 
procured. Everyone gives what he can in charity. 
And as Folkestone is too small to harbour all the 
refugees, from all parts of England friendly hands are 
outstretched to help them. 



OUR BELGIAN GUESTS. 31 

" Factories are opened to the workers, schools for 
children. 

"To you, Gentlemen, who have given your time and 
your labour, to you the helpers of the first hours, 
to you the founders and members of the War Relief 
Committee, to you all, the assurance of our sincere 
thanks. 

" To you, Ladies, we offer also a tribute of our deep 
gratitude. Through your feminine delicacy you have 
divined needs without the humiliating avowal and 
discovered the hidden suffering. 

" Your gifts were of an inestimable value, for they 
were guided by your heart. 

" This the Belgians will never forget ! 

" Our little children add to this ceremony the help 
of their frail and simple voices. Their place is here : 
it is a page of history for them. This hour will never 
fade from their memory. They will remember to have 
seen their parents affirming their feelings of friendship 
and gratefulness toward the great English nation. 

" They will take back to their country these seeds of 
gratitude, which will open in their souls as well as in 
those of their brethren who stayed in their country, into 
flowers of respectful affection and cordial esteem. 

" And in times to come, when the blessings of peace 
will have blotted out the sufferings and the sorrows, 
their thoughts will go back, with fervent emotion, 
towards the white coast of England and towards this 
beautiful town of Folkestone, and then will say : 

' ' ' There are our friends. ' ' ' 

An allegorical painting was executed by the well- 
known artist, Signor Franzoni. The work hangs in the 
Council Chamber. It depicts the arrival of the boat 



32 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

bearing the first company of refugees : little tots and 
old people are on the quay being met by a Red Cross 
Nurse and Folkestone children with food, while in the 
foreground there is a group of representative men, 
nearly all of whom were members of the first Relief 
Committee. On presenting the picture, the distin- 
guished artist delivered an impassioned oration from 
which we reproduce the following passage : 

"When I left Belgium she was invaded by the 
brutal German, whose ' Kultur ' was expressed by 
murder, pillage, rape, and the slaughter of old men, 
women, and little children. Unhappy Belgium ! I 
loved her because she had generously given me hospital- 
ity, and I would willingly have given my life for her, 
my second fatherland, the country of my wife and 
child. I was terribly unhappy, for I shared in all the 
sufferings of her martyrdom. After having vented my 
grief by crying aloud in my own country the indigna- 
tion and horror I felt at so many useless cruelties, 
after having completed the thankless task of holding 
public meetings to excite the sympathy of crowds, and 
to force them to do their duty towards the heroic 
defenders of the sacred cause of Justice and Honour, 
I came back to England, which a study of history had 
taught me to love — England, a nation ennobled 
by its deep devotion to the cause of Justice and 
Liberty. Here I witnessed other actions equally 
unforgettable; not deeds of cruelty like those I had 
seen perpetrated in Belgium by the Huns, but deeds 
of kindness and of love for suffering humanity. 
Remarkable for their ruthlessness are the barbarous 
deeds of the accursed German ; equally remarkable 
for generosity and devotion are the great sacrifices 




Photo! [Halksworth Wheeler. 

Belgian and French People Crowding into 
Roman Catholic Church (1914). 




Photo] [Halksworth Wheeler. 

Queue of French and Belgians Entering 
Bank to Change Money. 




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- ^ 

I W -PQ 

a: o < a 

S w 
w^ H 

c b O 
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OUR BELGIAN GUESTS. 33 

made with touching simplicity by the noble hearts of 
Great Britain. These are the deeds which have freed 
me from the nightmare of German atrocities, and 
which have aroused my imagination as an artist to 
show on canvas, though in a very feeble way, a small 
portion of the magnificent generosity of England 
towards the Belgians, in the hope of reminding future 
generations of the nature of the generosity and of the 
spontaneity with which it was offered. ' ' 

Among Folkestone women who rendered conspicuous 
assistance to the Belgians was Miss Marjorie Wood, 
who went to France with the First Aid Nursing Yeo- 
manry, a Corps composed of women who gave their 
services as motorists, some of them providing their 
own cars, and undertook the conveyance of the wounded 
from the lines to the hospitals. 

Miss Wood has driven over the greater part of the 
Western Front, and has been chauffeur and guide to 
distinguished persons, including His Majesty the 
King and Belgian Generals. The following exploit 
on the official record for September, 191 8, gives a 
vivid inpression of the kind of work in which she was 
engaged. 

"Before the rush of work came, we were having a 
good many runs, as there was a great deal of sickness 
about, and the cars were kept busy all day, though the 
last days of August were rather given over to amuse- 
ments, concerts and such-like ; but all frivolity came to 
a sudden full-stop, and we found ourselves plunged into 
hard work, When they began to evacuate the hospitals 
before the attack, we had as much as we could do, 
and when the General sent orders that two big cars 
wera to go down to V at once to evacuate the 



34 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

trains there, the case was getting pretty desperate, as 
we were already understaffed, six drivers being home 
on leave owing to sickness and other reasons. The 

first two drivers to do the V run were Clayton and 

Wood, and I consider the work they did was a really 
splendid achievement for any driver, and wonderful 
for a woman. They started their day by getting up at 
5 a.m. and working all day at the Hospitals round here, 
and at 8 p.m. the same evening the order came that 

three cars were to leave at io p.m. that night for V 

to unload the train there. Wood and Clayton were as 
game as possible when told they were chosen to go, and 
in spite of the fact that they had been working hard 
since 5 a.m., they left at 10 p.m., arriving at their 
destination at 1.15 a.m. next morning, starting to 
unload the train at once ; they did not get off their 
cars till 10.30 a.m., at which time they had some 
coffee and rested for about twenty minutes, after 
which they got on their cars and drove back here, 
arriving in the garage at 2 p.m., having been driving 
about thirty-six hours, some of the time in pitch 
darkness ; it was very nice to see how light they both 
made of what was a really splendid and plucky piece of 
work. ' ' 

Monseigneur de Wachter, the Vicar-General of 
Malines, and representative in London of his Eminence 
Cardinal Mercier, Archbishop of Malines, visited 
Folkestone and paid a remarkable tribute to the town's 
activities and generosity. He expressed the sentiment 
of his country and brought a message of appreciation 
from His Majesty King Albert. The Vicar-General said 
" they recognised in Belgium the wonderful kindness 
of the ladies and gentlemen of Folkestone to his poor 



OUR BELGIAN GUESTS. 35 

countrymen. They had received them with glowing 
hospitality, with such motherly feelings, that at once 
their tears were dried and they felt they had found a 
new home here after having lost their own. He hoped 
that the name of Folkestone would be inscribed one day 
in letters of gold on a monument which certainly must 
arise in Belgium to commemorate the hospitality of 
England towards them, and that the generations to 
come — the children of those who were there and their 
grandchildren in the future Belgium — must remember 
how Folkestone had been the first town in England to 
receive them and to lodge them and to give them to eat 
and to drink whatever they wanted. Folkestone 
had earned the admiration not only of the Belgians, 
but also of the whole world : yes, the whole civiliesd 
world knew how the town of Folkestone had received 
them with such cordiality which would never be 
forgotten." 

Whatever the future may have in store for Folkestone 
there will be one chapter in her history of which 
Folkestonians may always be justly proud. It is the 
chapter now concluding — the story of generous 
assistance given to Belgium in her supreme hour of 
necessity, when the outlook was very dark and difficult, 
but in which Belgium and England were confident of 
the righteousness of their cause and of their ultimate 
victory. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE CALL TO THE COLOURS. 

By Lieut.-Colonel A. Atkinson, Captain W. R. 
Fairbairn, and G. W. Haines. 

Visitors to Folkestone found pleasure in a jolly sail 
listening to the boatman's yarn. The more ad- 
venturous went for a night's fishing in a trawler. 
The true fisherman, like Peter Pan, never grows up. 
He keeps the child heart and love of adventure. 
The first to be warned for active service were the 
men of the Royal Naval Reserve. They left their 
baiting and their pleasure craft and journeyed with 
pride to the fighting fleet. 

Folkestone fisher boys wanted to give their comrades 
a musical send-off, but the band was not permitted 
to parade. The young men went away almost un- 
noticed, while the old fellows reluctantly stayed at 
home. 

The protection of the Channel was a mighty task. 
The Germans were poor sailors, but very good engineers. 
They thought to destroy England by sowing mines 
and sending out submarines. Our men went fishing 
for the mines and trapping the submarines. In both 
tasks they were successful. To understand the 
magnitude of the undertaking it is necessary to 
remember that the area of the North Sea is greater 
than Germany, and in the North Sea alone Britain 
had 1,700 ships of various sorts and 25,000 men 
detailed for mine sweeping. 



THE CALL TO THE COLOURS. 37 

Often mines were laid to drive trading vessels into 
a course where submarines could ply their murderous 
traffic with comparative safety. The Channel, with 
its bottle-neck, offered special facilities for mines 
and kept our brave fellows continually on the watch. 
Mines are of many kinds, but sea monsters ' ' with all 
manner of horns and humps." Some rise to the 
surface long after they have been hidden out of sight. 
Some float at random and others are anchored, but 
drift away. 

The trawlers sweep in pairs. It is a monotonous 
business, full of peril. Here is a description of the 
process by one who took part in it. "A deck-hand 
came up the ladder and handed out two pneumatic 
lifebelts. The Captain silently passed one to me. 
After we had fastened them securely he glanced at 
the chart and compass ; then he gave a command, 
which was flashed to the other boat. Thus the first 
preparation was made for the fishing. The other 
boat drew easily alongside. There was a clanking 
of machinery as she made off again, carrying one end 
of a heavy steel cable. Several hundred yards away 
she resumed her course while the cable sagged far 
down beneath the surface of the water. That was 
all ; we were sweeping. It was late in the afternoon 
when we made a catch. A sudden tightening of the 
cable made it clear that we had hit an obstruction. 
There was just a slight tremor all through the boat. 
Everybody stepped to the rail and gazed intently 
into the water. 'That'll be one,' said the skipper 
as the cable relaxed. Sure enough, it was one. The 
Boche mine broke the surface of the water and floated 
free ; her moorings of one inch steel cut off as cleanly 



345608 



38 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

as if with a mighty pair of shears. As it rolled 
lazily in the swell it reminded me of a great black 
turtle with spikes on its back. ' ' That is the normal 
procedure. Rifle bullets do the rest. When they 
hit there is an explosion that makes the teeth rattle, 
while a great cloud of black smoke rises into the still 
air, and a shining column of water shoots straight 
up to a height of fifty or sixty feet. 

Such explosions were frequently heard from the 
Leas, and we knew that our brave fellows were doing 
their work. The tremor of the earth seemed to 
shake the whole town. The thrill of excitement 
will not be forgotten by those who watched in safety, 
but what anxiety it meant for mothers and wives 
whose loved ones were out there playing the hero's 
part. When they came home they had little to say 
about their exploits. Any reference to their bravery 
covered them with blushes. They just carried on, 
and kept our home safe. 

The mobilization of the local Territorials is described 
by Colonel Atkinson. ....... 

During the week preceding 4th August, 1914, I 
do not think any Territorial was oblivious to the 
fact that he was about to be put to the test. 

It was one thing for the professional soldier, who 
had made arms his career, to be ordered off into the 
unknown. It was quite another for the civilian, who 
had been trying to fit himself for the defence of his 
country. 

And yet for five years at least particular attention 
had been paid to mobilization by the local Territorial 
Force. Annual trainings, staff tours for officers and 
n.c.o.'s, lectures, and school courses were all directed 
to that end. 



THE CALL TO THE COLOURS. 39 

Orders were written and re-written in the light of 
experience and trials. When War broke out there 
was, at any rate for the writer's unit, a complete 
set of indexed and comprehensive Orders, from which 
nothing seemed to be omitted. Indeed, officers, 
n.c.o.'s and men were detailed therein by name for 
specific duties. 

The local Territorial troops were engaged in a new 
experiment during July, 1914. For the first time a 
Division of all Arms was being moved by road from 
Aldershot to Salisbury Plain, bivouacking en route 
under Active Service conditions. This march was 
most successfully performed. However, on arrival 
at Amesbury, it was manifest that great movements 
were in operation. 

We were at once caught in the rising tide of War, 
and to many the memory of that August Sunday, 
Monday and Tuesday is a nightmare. With scores 
of thousands of men, horses, guns and vehicles ordered 
away from the Plain, delays were inevitable, but it was 
marvellous how quickly the thing got done in spite 
of all roads being choked with traffic for miles around 
the stations. 

Some of our men had marched over 20 miles on 
Bank Holiday with full kit, and food and sleep were 
for most of them impossible. 

Tuesday evening, August 4th, saw the local Company 
of Buffs back at their Drill Hall, and they had just 
been dismissed when the Officer Commanding received 
a telegram to keep the men at the Drill Hall all night. 
He was thankful that telegram arrived two minutes 
too late. 

On Wednesday, August 5th, the fateful telegram 



40 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

of one word — "Mobilize" — was received by the 
writer at 7.30 a.m. It had been despatched from 
Canterbury at 6.17 a.m. 

This entailed a written message from me, as the 
responsible Officer, to the Borough Engineer to give 
the pre-arranged signal. 

Twelve maroons were fired, according to plan, and 
in addition every man received his calling up by special 
messenger. 

We had made sure, and in an hour the medical 
examinations and other details were in progress. 
By the early afternoon, every officer or man was in 
his appointed place at his War Station in Dover. 

But what of the town of Folkestone ? Hearing 
those maroons, there were many visitors and others 
who promptly fled to the railway stations, some of 
them very scantily clad. Certain London evening 
papers announced : — ' ' Bombardment of Folkestone by 
the Enemy — Flight of Inhabitants !" 

A local newspaper complained about it and said 
that a signal should have been arranged ' ' that would 
not have alarmed anybody ! ' ' Well, of course, we 
ought to have wakened our tired men with sprays of 
rose water. 

Folkestone had indeed much to learn and a long 
way to go after this. Some of us had been thinking 
for a long time that Folkestone wanted rousing. On 
an occasion a little time before the War, when we were 
making a very special appeal for 40 recruits, we got one, 
at most two, boys, whose hearts were better than 
their physique. 

If there was one thing more than another which 
exasperated the Territorial in the early days of the 





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O 

d 

o 
u 



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f^STr $*-• ' ;' 


w » 


- v " "*** 


• 



Photo' [Halksworth Wheeler. 

Local Buffs (T) Off to War. 




Photo] [Holksirorth Wheeler. 

Territorial Buffs — With Ammunition Carts. 



THE CALL TO THE COLOURS. 41 

War it was reading in the newspapers about the 
Sanctity of the Season, "Business as usual," and 
being made the subject of "Enthusiastic Scenes," 
these last being composed largely of young men who 
ought to have been in our ranks, but who preferred 
to wear and wave flags. 

Our little handful of infantry, 3 officers and 76 other 
ranks, at all events, was ready. 

The same applied to the Territorial Artillery and 
R.A.M.C. 

Did our mobilization plans work out well ? They 
did. 

Horses and civilian transport were speedily got in 
by the party of Folkestone men detailed for that job, 
and many a farmer and another learned that day that 
the previous earmarking of his horse or waggon had 
not been, as some thought, part of a foolish amusement 
for amateur soldiers. 

Ammunition, working tools, harness and the hundred 
and one details were assembled, and that night 
trench digging on the outpost line began in earnest on 
the very spots where for years we had played at the 
game with sticks, string and tape. Also, grim reality ! 
our swords and bayonets were sharpened. 

Accommodation was provided in empty barracks. 
Literally empty, and provided with floors of surprising 
hardness for sleeping on. The fatigues of digging, 
however, softened the floors for the tired men. 

When the local Buffs were relieved by the slower 
mobilizing 3rd Line (Special Reserve) they went to 
Canterbury to commence the six months' training 
promised by Lord Haldane. 

In less than a fortnight a staff officer came to our 



42 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

headquarters very late one night, with the result that 
next morning on parade the Battalion was asked, nay, 
required, by our Commanding Officer, Lieut. -Col. 
Gosling, to volunteer for service in France. 

Now, this was a searching thing for men whose 
conditions of service were for home defence, especially 
for those who had left wives and children, to say nothing 
of businesses, at the bidding of a telegram. 

There were no Tribunals in those days. 

The Battalion volunteered because we knew that, 
apart from our splendid Navy, one trench in France 
was of more use to our country than a hundred trenches 
in England. For the next few weeks our Battalion's 
history was chequered and arduous, for these were 
days in which so much had to be improvised. Our 
ranks, however, were soon filled by a good class of 
volunteer. 

After expecting to cross the Channel orders were 
received late in October to proceed to India, and the 
Battalion left Thanet on 29th October, 1914. 

Meanwhile, the second line was growing. The 
humours of recruiting, before compulsory methods 
came into force, were., perhaps, nowhere better 
illustrated than at the Head Quarters at Canterbury 
of our local Infantry Battalion. 

I had the honour of receiving and starting on their 
careers a vast number of recruits. 

The British public got a taste of what billeting 
means. This was generally an unpleasant matter 
for all concerned. Many a house whose accommoda- 
tion we had gently enquired about in peace time had 
now to experience the real thing. Territorials during 
the early days soon fell very foul of beautiful young 



THE CALL TO THE COLOURS. 43 

men on the Golf Courses, especially when a Company 
of ours got billeted in a Golf Club House in Thanet. 

This chapter, however, cannot enter into details 
other than of local interest. The distinct existence 
of Territorials, as such, was soon indistinguishable 
from that of the Imperial and New Armies. 

Suffice it to say, therefore, that soon after mobiliza- 
tion Folkestone produced a very good number of 
volunteers before the introduction of the Military 
Service Acts. After compulsory service became law, 
there was no falling off in quantity or quality, and 
as to the deeds, lives, and deaths of many a good 
man, have they not been written from week to week 
in our local Press ? ' ' And some there be which 
have no memorial — who are perished as though they 
had never been — but .... their glory shall 
not be blotted out. Their bodies are buried in peace ; 
but their name liveth for evermore." 

Many of the Buffs under Colonel Gosling went to 
India and saw active service in the frontier fighting. 
They conducted themselves with great credit at Aden, 
and many are the stories of individual bravery. In 
a long and arduous campaign, very little noticed in 
the Press, there were many tests of the quality of 
the men. Their powers of endurance in long marches 
and gorilla fighting were strained to the utmost. 
Folkestone is proud of her sons, and the name of the 
Buffs has become a synonym for courage and high 
qualities. 

Other Companies were detailed for coastal work. 
Major J. G. Welch and his men went to Dover and 
became the Training Corps, passing on large numbers of 
gunners to France. Captain Nicholls was with the 



44 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

gunners in the West of England until he went over 
to the Western Front, where his bravery upon more 
than one memorable occasion gained him distinction. 
The 2nd and 3rd Home Counties Brigade of the 
Territorial R.F.A. left the town in full strength with 
Major W. B. Kennett in command. Captain S. Lambert 
Weston and Lieuts. Wise, Loyd, and Boyd were 
with their men ; they had important duty on coast 
defence. 

It is a pleasure to add Captain Fairbairn's account 
of Aden. 

It was on the 29th October, 1914, when about 180 
n.c.o.'s and men from Folkestone, forming part of 
the i/4th Battalion the Buffs, embarked on H.M. 
Transport Dongola for India. 

Disappointed at their not having been sent direct 
to France, but satisfied with the assurance of Lord 
Kitchener that the time was not far distant when 
they would enter one or other of the areas of hostilities, 
they settled down with a determination to fit them- 
selves perfectly for any ordeal which might come 
their way. 

The transport was one of 12 huge ships which 
carried the first Home Counties Division to the best 
military training centre in the world. Escorted to 
Suez by warships, both French and British, the 
troops had much to occupy their mind when once the 
horrors of the Bay of Biscay and the prostration of 
"mal de mer" had been overcome, though not a 
few failed to appreciate the ' ' benefits ' ' of inoculation 
which was carried out on board. 

From Port Said to Suez, and on to Bombay, the 



THE CALL TO THE COLOURS. 45 

voyage had nothing but charms, and when on the 
1st December the battalion disembarked at Bombay 
for Mhow every man was absolutely fit. 

Territorial troops were new to India, and after the 
somewhat wearisome travelling in the Indian troop 
trains, all ranks appreciated their first halt. It was 
at Baroda, where the Maharajah of Baroda had laid 
himself out to entertain all British units passing 
through his province, that the men of Kent first 
made the acquaintance of the proverbial "Indian 
Stew." 

On the 3rd December the Battalion detrained at 
Mhow. Dawn had only just broken, when the 
Battalion, formed up in mass, was received by the 
G.O.C. 5th Division, under whose command they were 
to be stationed. Clad in western clothing with the ex- 
ception of their topis, they marched through the 
streets of Mhow, being subjected to the careful and 
critical scrutiny of the entire native population. The 
fears of the Indian Councils that Territorial Troops 
would lack the soldierly bearing of those of the 
Regular Army whom they had come to replace 
were soon dispelled, for they soon discovered that 
the men who were to help in the governing of the 
country, to continue training, were soldiers as to the 
manner born. 

Barely had the Buffs been issued with their 
khaki drill than they settled down to as severe a test 
of training as it was possible for British Troops to 
receive. "Kitchener's Test" it was termed, and 
the fact that soldiers from home were to experience 
the trials of climate and work which had always been 
found difficult by regular troops did not dismay the 



46 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

Kentish boys. It was the one ambition of the entire 
Battalion to be the first to pass the critical examination 
of the G.O.C. and be pronounced the Battalion first 
fit to take its place in action in the Eastern Spheres. 

Before six months had expired Colonel Gosling 
was the proud possessor of the certificate of the G.O.C. 
that the unit had qualified and had attained its 
goal. It had meant months of a severe form of 
physical and technical training, in which every rank 
was exercised to its full. Spare time had to be occupied 
by sport, and the Battalion Football Team was making 
a reputation at Calcutta, where on the Maidan it was 
engaged in a knock-out competition with teams from 
all over India. 

While enjoying a short respite from training and 
hard work, the troops in Wellesley Barracks were one 
day electrified with excitement by reason of an 
intimation that they were about to proceed on active 
service. There were stories of an Afghan rising, of 
a great defeat in Mesopotamia, of an over-running 
in Egypt by the Turks, in fact, there were so many 
rumours that nobody out of official circles had the 
faintest idea where the Battalion was going to open 
its career. Then came the news ! A Welsh Battalion 
had undergone such hardships in the Aden-Hinter- 
land that relief was wanted immediately, and the 
1 /4th Battalion had been selected for the purpose. 
Aden ! ! The very name was sufficient to damp the 
enthusiasm of the most ardent soldier. 

When it had become known that the Welshmen 
had suffered tortures of mind and body due to a 
shortage of acquaintance with equatorial conditions, 
and the trials of heat and thirst, one would have 



THE CALL TO THE COLOURS. 47 

imagined that territorial troops, however keen, would 
have shown some diffidence for the undertaking upon 
which they were to embark ; but it was not so. The 
Monsoon weather was breaking — it was the end of 
June, 1915 — when, equipped to the last man, the 
Battalion was inspected by the G.O.C., 5th Division, 
congratulated on its apparent soldierly bearing and 
efficiency, and advised that it was its duty to main- 
tain the reputation that the Buffs of yore had 
made and earned. 

That same night, without beat of drum, the Battalion 
left the parade ground. There were no words of 
command, for active service conditions had begun, 
and, silent as the night, they wended their way to 
Mhow Station. There all the European population, 
and, for the matter of that, nearly every native in 
cantonment, had congregated. A quick entraining, 
hasty farewells, and the Buffs were "en route" 
to Bombay. In record time, guns, rifles, ammunition, 
stores and men were aboard, and the Monsoon appeared 
to break with extraordinary violence as the transport 
steamed out of harbour. 

For five days and nights all the horrors of sea- 
sickness such as are only met with in the Indian Ocean 
damped the ardour of all ranks, and when the natives 
refused to work in the stokehol owing to sea-sickness 
volunteers from the Folkestone-Boulogne service 
filled the gaps. 

Eventually the storm was weathered, and, none 
the worse for their journey, the troops leaned over 
the side and gazed first at the barren rocks of Aden 
itself, and then with considerable apprehensions at 
the Arabian Desert beyond. This latter, one great 



48 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

expanse of sand, devoid of cultivation and water, was 
to be the scene of their future. On it they were to 
live and fight with a determination that the Turk 
should never wrest from the British Government 
that great rock of Aden holding the command of the 
southern entrance to the Red Sea. 

Whilst awaiting disembarkation, came through the 
orders for immediate action. It was reported that 
in Aden itself there were thousands of Arabs who first 
had to be controlled, and whilst half the Battalion 
would be responsible for that duty, the other half 
would proceed to the desert. When it is realised 
that this small Battalion of 800 men, with the addition 
of a Battery of the H.A.C. and Fortress Company of 
R.G.A., were practically the only white troops in 
the area, the responsibility of the duty to be performed 
will be apparent. With the utmost despatch the Buffs 
disembarked and took over from the Welshmen their 
new duties. 

It appeared that the Sultan of Lahej, who had been 
loyal to the Crown, had been killed in his own city 
and grounds after being betrayed by his own native 
troops. These latter had been equipped and partially 
trained by British officials, but when the Turks 
descended upon Aden they were aided in their exploits 
by a relative of the Sultan himself. Jealousy and 
greed for power and authority had prompted this 
relative to co-operate with the Turks as against the 
Sultan, with the result that the British Forces within 
the Aden Protectorate had to fall back to the Isthmus 
which adjoins Aden to the mainland. This had proved 
an expensive operation, and many Welshmen and 
others paid the toll, and their remains are covered 




w 
ex 



o 

K 



THE CALL TO THE COLOURS. 49 

in the sand dunes of the Arabian Desert. Eventually 
a composite force of native troops was formed, and 
these, with the Buffs as their backing, advanced 
to Sheik Othman at the Arabian end of the Isthmus 
and entrenched. 

It so happened that the portion of the line allotted 
to the Men of Kent was in a garden full of wells and 
infested with mosquitoes of the malaria-carrying 
type, a circumstance which did untold harm to the 
health of the men. 

At first there were occasional sorties with the Turks, 
during which the Buffs received their baptism 
of fire. It was grand to watch these boys — for most 
of them were boys — as they laughed and joked about 
the erratic shooting of the Turk. They proved their 
worth and gave every evidence that when the supreme 
task did come they were men fitted for the job. 

On the 25th September came one of the most trying 
and arduous days that British troops could ever have 
experienced. Ten miles away was a village called 
Waht. The Brigade Staff Orders were that a 
reconnaisance in force was to be carried out with the 
object of ascertaining whether Waht was adaptable 
to the requirements of Headquarters. It was to be 
held till the following nightfall and evacuated early in 
the succeeding morning. 

Three hours before dawn of the morning of the 
25th the Battalion moved to this place in the line of 
march with artillerymen and natives forming part 
of their Company. The Aden Camel Corps and the 
Bengal Cavalry had been watching and scouting 
during the night, and the advance was now to be made 
in earnest. By daybreak the Battalion had deployed, 



50 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

and it was not long before they were under the fire 
of the Turk Artillery. There were no casualties of any 
importance, and all went well till the heat of day 
began to exert itself. At 9 o'clock the advance was 
continued and the terrors of a burning desert without 
shade or water other than that carried in water bottles 
began to tell on the troops. The advance, however, 
was maintained at a rapid rate, and the Turks and 
Arabs were forced to vacate the village of Waht. At 
a short distance behind the lines, however, they had 
reserve trenches, and into these they scuttled as 
the Buffs with their bayonets charged them through 
the village. 

The object attained, the Buffs occupied the 
Waht defences, and only those men who laid out on the 
filthy insanitary dunes could ever explain the horrible 
stench and filthiness of the conditions under which 
the enemy had lived in Waht. 

The sun was at its height when the infantrymen, 
sheltering from the Turks' artillery — and they were 
not bad gunners — could not understand why our own 
artillerymen were not responding to the Turks' salvoes. 
It was imagined they had gone to a flank in order to 
catch the enemy in enfilade, but a little later on a 
grim reality presented itself, for to hand came the 
news that the 5m. gunwheels had sunk into the sand, 
making it impossible for the artillerymen to bring 
the guns up. The wily Turk had ascertained this 
fact, and he began a counter attack in real earnest. 
And all this while in a shade temperature of 130 
degrees ! The Buffs had waited in expectancy, 
and suffering from heat and the strenuous advance 
with very little food, they were not surprised when 



THE CALL TO THE COLOURS. 51 

the order came that they were to retire to their trenches. 
This was for them the worst of all, for it had not been 
anticipated that a withdrawal would be necessary, 
or that the anguish of returning knee-deep in sand 
over those many miles of desert would have to be 
accomplished on the same day. 

The retirement began under cover of native troops, 
but it was pitiful to see some of the flower of the 
regiment fall victims to sunstroke and die. Nor 
were they alone in this, for great powerful machine 
gunners of the Australian Navy, a detachment which 
had been landed to assist, suffered similarly. Natives 
and white men alike shared water bottles and bore 
each other's burdens, and in those miles of retirement 
some heroic deeds of self-sacrifice and devotion 
were performed. 

The Bengal Cavalry, realising the immensity of the 
task allotted to the Battalion, brought their horses 
as far as possible to meet the retiring troops, who, 
when behind their own lines, took life easy and rode 
behind their native comrades. 

It was a sad camp the next morning, and the writer 
will never forget how he commanded a firing party 
which at mid-day lined the graves dug by Arabs 
on a stretch of desert behind Sheik Othman, and 
gave a final salute to those men who had struggled 
so gallantly the previous day. 

On subsequent days volunteers from the Battalion 
turned those rough dune graves into what eventually 
became a little garrison churchyard, and where now 
suitable stones are erected. 

Beyond occasional surprises, generally without 
result, the Turk did not worry the little force for 



52 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

some time, but with the malaria-infested garden 
the Buffs held their line until the numbers were 
so reduced by malaria that they had to return behind 
their line to Aden itself. A relief was, however, soon 
made up from the other half of the Battalion, and in 
the meantime more duties were carried out all over 
Aden, necessitating in many instances men being on 
guard for fourteen or fifteen days and nights at a time. 

Christmas of 1915 was spent in the line. Once 
or twice the Turk threatened to do things, but in- 
variably he changed his mind and thought twice. 

January, 1916, brought about somewhat cooler 
weather, and the condition of the troops in the desert 
trenches were made somewhat happier, but they 
were not sorry when at the end of the month intimation 
came that the Battalion had more than completed 
the allotted span of a soldier's service in Aden climate, 
and a Battalion would soon arrive in relief. This 
meant a return to India, and a further preparation for 
more active service in another Eastern Sphere. Before 
February had commenced the Men of Kent had been 
relieved by the Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry 
and proceeded to Bareilly. 

A short turn of leave and a sojourn in the Himalayan 
Hills became the next treat, and then by drafts 
of 100 and more the i/4th Battalion began to furnish 
drafts for Mesopotamia. As fast as one party went 
away another would arrive from England, and the 
latter on their arrival would read with proud pleasure 
the valedictory message of the G.O.C., Aden Field 
Forces, which paid tribute in sterling terms to the 
powers of endurance and devotion to duty of the 
Men of Kent under his command. 



THE CALL TO THE COLOURS. 53 

In November, 1914, the Folkestone Volunteer Corps 
was inaugurated at a preliminary meeting in the 
Town Hall. Those taking part included Colonel G. 
Power, F. Scarborough, A. R. Bowles, Henry Brooke, 
and G. W. Haines. Colonel Owen was appointed 
Military Adviser and G. W. Haines Honorary Secretary. 
With Major H. R. J. Willis they were appointed an 
Executive Committee. Major Willis was afterwards 
commissioned Officer Commanding. 

At a special parade at the Drill Hall 350 people 
attended, marshalled by Sergeant-Ma j or Vickery, R.E. 
The work of the Volunteer Training Corps was explained 
by the Honorary Secretary. Rules were formulated 
and a number of men enrolled. The Corps was 
established under the title of the Folkestone Volunteer 
Training Corps and became affiliated to the Central 
Association of Volunteer Training Corps. Drills were 
commenced and held two nights per week. Officers 
were appointed and subsequently confirmed by Lord 
Harris, Commandant of the County Organization. 
The Platoon Commanders were A. R. Bowles, E. D. 
Fitzgerald, Edward P. W. Foster, C.M.G., F. S. Upton, 
G. W. Haines. 

At the beginning of 1915 the normal roll showed a 
strength of 239 men over 38 years of age, and 77 under 
38. The Company on parade resolved that the 
members were in accord with the principle of organiza- 
tion with County Units, and a resolution was passed 
that the Corps make application to be included in the 
County Association and become affiliated with the 
Kent Volunteer Fencibles, and form "E" Company 
of the 1st Cinque Ports Battalion. 

The organization coming under the head of a trained 



54 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

band or body raised by consent of the Lord Lieutenant, 
it was not subject to the discipline of the Army or 
Volunteer Acts. The War Office desired before giving 
official recognition or assistance that members should 
attest under the Volunteer Act, 1863, which they did. 

In September, 1915, the Battalion was inspected by 
the Commandant at Dover, when over 800 men from the 
locality paraded, and the brass band of " E " Folkestone 
Company played. Brigadier-General W. Tylden was 
appointed to the command and subsequently to the 
command of the 1st Battalion under its new title, 
the East Kent Regiment, with its regimental name 
of the Buffs. 

Under the Volunteer Acts members were entitled 
to resign on giving fourteen days' notice. The War 
Office desired to maintain the Force on a war footing, 
and a special Act was passed to enable members to enter 
into agreements of service for the period of the War. 
Slowly the Force transferred itself to these conditions. 

Volunteer commissions were granted to the officers, 
but such appointments were limited in number. 
Platoon Commander Upton resigned and Sergeant 
H. J. Lewes was appointed in his place. Major 
Willis was gazetted Captain. The work he did in 
connection with the Corps has hardly received 
recognition. He carried out his duties in the true 
soldier-like spirit, not seeking publicity or reward, 
but just doing as he was commanded. 

Platoon Commanders Bowles and Fitzgerald became 
Lieutenants ; Foster and Lewes Second Lieutenants ; 
G. W. Haines had the rank of Company-Quarter- 
Master-Sergeant. There was a slow drain on the 
Corps, many men volunteering for foreign service. 
The depletion was made up by those who were from 



THE CALL TO THE COLOURS. 55 

1916 ordered to join the Corps by the military tribunals. 

Gradually the Force, save for some fifty of its 
original members, nearly all over fighting age, lost 
the character of a Volunteer Corps and came under 
compulsory conditions. The general effect was to 
encourage the military spirit, and ultimately many 
of the men found their way into the fighting line. 
Between five and six hundred men were trained, and 
undertook various kinds of work. The Company 
was responsible for certain trenching operations, 
guarding of railways and line of communications, 
beside acting as guards for search-lights and anti- 
aircraft guns. 

Members were handicapped at the beginning, 
having to find their own uniforms, drilling with 
wooden rifles, and being subject to some amount of 
ridicule from those not so earnest as themselves, but 
the War Office subsequently armed the Force, so that 
in 1918 they were equipped with a rifle, bayonet, steel 
helmet, gas mask, trenching tools and every necessity. 

In November, 1916, the rank and file mustered 359 
strong ; September, 1917, 254. The Battalion was 
inspected in 191 6 by Sir Francis Lloyd, in the absence 
of General French. In 1915 there were 294 parades, 
with total attendances of 17,528. 

The Company met their own expenses, and con- 
structed an open-air rifle range and miniature ranges. 
When the Drill Hall was commandeered by the Military 
for a Rest Camp, "E" Co. paraded in the streets 
or fields in all weathers. The Company stood by 
more than once for mobilization during the crises of 
the War, and were under arms at the very time of 
the Armistice. They fulfilled expectations and did 
very useful work. 



CHAPTER IV. 

SHAPING THE NEW ARMY. 
By the Editor and Lieut. -Col. E. M. Liddell. 

By the end of September, 1914, nearly 20,000 
recruits were on the Camp. Shorncliffe had lost its 
calm ; visitors no longer went up to St. Martin's Plain 
for a quiet stroll, as in the old days of Peace. They 
went to watch the hustle of Camp life in War-time. 

The boys represented all classes of the community, 
from bank clerks and college students to farm labourers 
and London street-hawkers. The response to the call 
for volunteers was so great that the Military Authori- 
ties did not know what to do with the men. It was 
estimated before the War that England had 12,000,000 
men of military age, of whom 4,000,000 would be 
needed for essential trades and 4,000,000 would be 
physically unfit, or required at home for compassionate 
reasons. It will always be a matter of honest pride 
that 3,500,000 men voluntarily enlisted. 

The New Army took its drills wherever there were 
suitable spaces. In Radnor Park the soldiers in the 
making were watched by wondering children and 
admiring servant maids. On the Leas they took 
gunnery instruction before they possessed guns, 
or even uniforms. They carried on with their 
training, and greatly enjoyed it. 

Lord Kitchener, who had a residence at Broome 
Park, managed to come and go unobserved by the 
general public. K. of K. loved to mingle with the boys, 




Earl Kitchener, Miss Harrold (Manor 
Court Hospital) and Major Reason. 

(This photo, taken at Broome Park, was perhaps 
the last taken of Lord Kitchener. It is 
published by kind permission of Miss Harrold), 




Photo] [George Sands. 

Lieut. -Col. the Earl of Radnor 
(Lord of the Manor). 




Major Sir Philip Sassoon, C. M.G., M.P. 



SHAPING THE NEW ARMY. 57 

watching their progress, nodding approval, and speak- 
ing words of counsel. Many a lad has among his most 
cherished memories a sentence from the lips of the 
great soldier. When the news leaked out that 
Kitchener was coming crowds of visitors assembled to 
get a view of the creator of the New Army. Kitchener's 
aversion to publicity sometimes led to disappointment. 
He was most at his ease when entertaining a company 
of convalescent boys in his own beautiful grounds at 
Broome Park. His last photograph was a snapshot 
in which he is seen with Nurse Harrold, of Manor Court 
Hospital, and a batch of her patients. 

Great amusement was created by the bathing 
exercises. The boys came down to the beach in 
swarms, for a dip in the briny, or to roll in the surf. 
Folkestone beach presented the appearance of 
Blackpool or Coney Island. Bathing regulations were 
very stringent, but they were more honoured in the 
breach than in the observance. It was good to see the 
fellows in their fun capering about in the water, like 
little children in their glee. Boats were in great 
demand for diving. The sea was, as ever, a great 
attraction to adventurous Britons. 

The accommodation on the Camp was inadequate 
to meet the demand ; large numbers of men were 
billeted all over the area. Town mansions, private 
hotels, and cottages were packed with men. No 
visitors were more welcome, and on the whole none 
behaved more honourably. Praise of the men was 
heard on every side ; poor people whose homes were 
filled with the strange guests told how the boys often 
helped Mother to wash-up and made their own beds ; 
they played with the kiddies, and won the hearts of 



58 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

the girls. Soon after, in the terrible days in Flanders, 
they showed their quality in many a hard fight ; 
but in their training they were soft-hearted as boys at 
home. 

In early morning squads would march down to the 
Leas and begin the monotonous task of forming fours. 
They were in civilian attire ; an odd lot they were : 
boys in corduroy, and "knuts" who had taken the 
"spats" from their boots and put them in their 
pockets to avoid the banter of their new comrades. 
The old sergeant, usually a tough customer, shouted 
out the most elementary instruction. Upon one 
occasion, after the roll had been called, he yelled : 
' ' Is there anybody absent who hasn't answered to h.is 
name ? ' ' and looked surprised at the hilarity caused 
by the question. But the sergeant always got his own 
back. He ordered the men to double, and then to 
charge on the run. It was ciirious to see the fellows 
without gun or even walking-stick going through the 
drill of lifting the rifle into position, sighting, and firing 
on command. 

On the Camp, huts were being erected as fast as 
contractors could get men for the work. Cook- 
houses were designed, but not constructed, and all the 
domestic duties were executed in the open, greatly 
to the amusement of the boys and the visitors. The 
tents in which many men slept on the Camp were often 
blown down, and in the storm flooded out. The 
adventures were humorous to the onlooker, but not to 
the men who found their clothes wet through, and no 
opportunity to dry them, except upon their backs. 

Regiments came in quick succession, and went over 
almost as soon as they received their uniforms, and 



SHAPING THE NEW ARMY. 59 

sometimes before they obtained their full equipment 
of weapons. The Northern burr and the Irish brogue 
were common in the streets, and the bagpipes resounded 
over the hills. The 3rd Hussars, 1st Batt. Royal 
Irish Fusiliers, 2nd Batt. Seaforth Highlanders, and 
1st Royal Warwickshire Regiment were in the Camp 
at the outbreak of war. Regimental sports, held a 
week before their departure, attracted great crowds ; 
like Drake, they played their game before they went 
out to fight the foe. Alas ! that so few of those fine 
fellows were fated to return. 

When an Oxford regiment was on the Camp 
Bishop Gore made a special visit, and preached a 
memorable sermon. General Ian Hamilton, who after- 
wards was in command of the Dardenelles adventure, 
read the lessons. It was a striking service ; the men 
lined up facing the drums ; their fine physique, clear 
eyes, and open countenances, the flower of English 
manhood, could not fail to make an impression upon 
the crowd of visitors, among whom were many fathers 
and mothers, watching with fond pride their loved 
ones, many of whose bodies now rest in Flanders. 

No wonder the Bishop's voice thrilled with emotion, 
as he told of the higher duty they had undertaken, and 
wished the men Godspeed in their great enterprise. 
They stood as the descendants of the men who, long 
ago, went forth to the Crusades at the call of religion. 
They would fight the more righteous cause and would 
do their duty in the spirit of their sires. It was a true 
prophecy ; the Oxfords fought with their backs to 
the wall, and died nobly. 

The presence of the New Army had a stimulating 
effect upon local recruiting. The travelling bureau 



60 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

visited the town in September. Open-air meetings 
were held. Major-General Spens and Mr. Shirley 
Benn, M.P., had the assistance of members of the Town 
Council and other local speakers. Among the most 
successful of the patriotic gatherings was that at the 
Town Hall, when Mrs. Pankhurst made her appearance, 
not as a militant suffragette, but as a whole-hearted 
advocate of the War. Sir Philip Sassoon made a 
strong appeal for the East Kent Yeomanry, in which he 
was serving. A number of men responded and joined 
the Borough Member in active service. 

Among the visitors to the town were many distin- 
guished men. Mr. Asquith, then staying at Lympne 
Castle for the week-end, frequently found his way over 
to the Camp and down to the Harbour. He was greatly 
interested in the rapidly changing character of 
Folkestone, owing to the war activities. 

Mr. Lloyd George came to Beachborough and to the 
Leas, but not, as in the old days, to the golf links. 
Those who knew him saw only too plainly the effects 
of the strain of War on his mood. The old light- 
hearted spirit and gaiety of movement had given place 
to a gravity that became a burden. When, in those 
days, Lloyd George referred to the War, it was with 
assurance of the justice of our cause, but with some- 
thing like irritation at the slow pace of the preparations 
for what he was convinced would be a long and terrible 
struggle. Upon one occasion, when the Prime 
Minister was outside the Pavilion Hotel, with a friend, 
one of the boys passing said : " Is that Lloyd George? ' ' 
and being told it was, put out his hand. ' ' I'd like to 
shake hands with you, sir," he said. Lloyd George 
readily responded, and talked to the man for a minute 



SHAPING THE NEW ARMY. 6 1 

or so before he passed on. On the Harbour the 
soldier was a bit of a hero, but not quite sure of the 
honour. Haltingly, he said : " I thought a wonderful 
lot of him, but he's only like one of ourselves. 

Women's organizations, engaging in war work, were 
pioneered by Lady Jane Carleton, who turned out a 
smart company in Folkestone, taking their instruction 
at the Drill Hall, and preparing to render service at 
the Camps. 

When the W.A.A.C.'S came to the town the Hotel 
Metropole was taken over for their Headquarters. It 
was a great loss to the town that the chief hotel should 
be closed to visitors, but the women deserved our best, 
and they had it. Seven thousand women proceeded 
overseas from the Metropole. Recruits were trained 
in about three weeks to a month ; they were drilled 
on the Front, and were not one whit behind the men in 
smartness of movement. They were inoculated 
and vaccinated, and sent to France at the rate of 
approximately 200 a week. They undertook work as 
cooks, waitresses, clerks, mechanics, and motorists. 
A company, hearing that the soldiers' graves were un- 
tended, volunteered to go out to care for the resting- 
places of our fallen heroes ; and through the years 
they have been making the graveyards beautiful. 

During the air raids the women were brought down 
to the lower hall, and provided concerts for their own 
entertainment. There were no casualties ; no panic. 
In the dark days the hotel was evacuated in 24 hours, 
in order to provide for women from overseas who 
might be compelled to return under the pressure of the 
enemy. Those who were in residence were jubilant 
but mystified upon being ordered off on leave. They 
never knew the serious reason behind the instruction. 



62 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

The First Administrator was Miss Stevenson, who 
was followed by Miss Ireland, and afterwards Miss 
Carlisle. Miss Jacobs was the Deputy Assistant 
Administrator, and the Quartermistresses were 
Mesdames Biggar and Tates. 

The New Army was very impatient to get to the 
front. The men did not then fully appreciate the value 
of training. Sometimes their eagerness to get across 
led to amusing episodes. A little party of impatient 
boys resolved that they would take action. The 
authorities were all too slow in getting men to France. 
They solemnly laid their plans and under the cover of 
night took a pleasure boat from the beach and left 
Folkestone at 4 o'clock on a Saturday afternoon. The 
little company consisted of four Artillerymen ; un- 
fortunately, their names were not recorded. The 
owner of the boat, the "Enterprise," was Mr. J. 
Skinner. They arrived off Calais about 3 o'clock 
on Sunday morning, having been picked up by a French 
fishing trawler, and towed into the harbour. They 
reported that they were very hungry and tired. The 
Calais people heard of the escapade, and the fishermen 
turned out to give them a great welcome. They 
received many offers of hospitality, and were 
embarrassed by the good things brought to them. But, 
much to their chagrin, later in the day they were 
marched down to the Folkestone boat. Upon their 
arrival they were placed in the fishing-boat and pulled 
round by the shore to the point from which they 
started. 

Some eager spirits tried to get across by hiding on the 
pier and falling into line with troops going from the 
train to the boat. Crowds of men were embarking, and 



SHAPING THE NEW ARMY. 63 

it was extremely difficult to pick out those who were 
not entitled to go on board. However, the inspectors 
usually detected the adventurers, and returned them 
to camp. CB. was the result. Those who persisted 
in their attempts to cross without orders were brought 
up before the local magistrates and reprimanded. In 
their defence they usually pleaded their anxiety to get 
across before the job was finished. The courage of the 
men did not justify their disobedience, but it was very 
gratifying and typical of the New Army. 

The impatience of the recruits occasionally found 
expression, as when a company refused to go through 
the mimic manoeuvres of taking cover in presence of 
an enemy who was not there. The men persisted 
that they would never take cover, but fight it out in 
the open. They did not then know the German idea 
of warfare. When they saw what it was they were 
doubtless thankful for the training they had received. 

The British Y.M.C.A. soon began its magnificent 
work. Tents were used as canteens and recreation 
centres. The staff of the Bank of England erected 
the first Hut. In its writing-room many thousands 
of letters were penned to the loved ones at 
home. The work extended and did untold good for 
the New Army. The catering developed into an 
enormous business : 30,000 cups of tea and coffee 
being supplied in a single day. Concerts and 
lectures were given by local people. Religious 
services were held during the week ; Folkestone 
ministers being responsible for the arrangements. 
The Chaplaincy service was not in working order ; 
two of the Folkestone Churches were without 
ministers, and the clergy were hard-pressed, several 



64 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

of their men having gone into camp in other districts. 
It is worthy of note that parade services and hospital 
visitations were not missed. 

Sports were arranged on an elaborate scale. It was 
amusing to watch the men in their civilian attire 
running across-country, in a five-mile race, or 
endeavouring to take the high jump in Radnor Park. 

Ladies mended garments and gave the human touch 
to camp life. From the time of the first Y.M.C.A. in 
Folkestone, moved from the Lecture Hall in 
Rendezvous Street to the centre of the town, there was 
no lack of women workers. The chief organisers 
representing the Central body were : Messrs. Tee, 
Haines, and Towers, who in turn had responsibility 
for the direction of the Y.M.C.A. work for the whole 
area. It was a responsible task, efficiently per- 
formed. The voluntary helpers counted no task too 
menial or exacting that added to the comfort of our 
brave men. 

The principal Y.M. centre was the Luton Hut, given 
by the inhabitants of Luton. It was restaurant, club, 
and home to many thousands of men. Additional 
huts were provided as the need demanded, and were 
greatly appreciated. What the Camp would have been 
without the Y.M. it is difficult to conceive. 

The success of the local recruiting campaign was 
in some measure due to the example of Lord Radnor 
and the Borough Member, Sir Phillip Sassoon. Lord 
Radnor left England on October 4th, 1914, for India, 
in command of the i/4th Wilts Regiment. In May, 
1915, he was appointed to command Dehra Dun 
Brigade, and in September promoted Brigadier-General. 
At the end of 1916 he was given the command of the 




Photo] IHalksworth Wheeler. 

Recruiting Meeting in Marine Gardens. 




Photo] [Halksworth Wheeler 

Men of "Kitchener's Army" Bathing. 




Photo] [Halksuvrth Wheeled. 

New Army Training in Civilian Attire. 




Photo] [Halksworth Wheeler. 

Kitchener's Men" Drilling at Shorncliffe. 




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SHAPING THE NEW ARMY. 65 

43rd Infantry Brigade, but relinquished this in 1917, 
in order to return to England to obtain a command in 
France. In June, 1917, his Lordship took over the 
command of the 14th Training Reserve Battalion as 
Lieut. -Colonel. This Battalion subsequently became 
the 52nd Graduated Battalion, Notts and Derby 
Regiment. In January the following year Lord 
Radnor was appointed Director of Agricultural 
Production, B.E.F., with the rank of Brigadier- 
General, which position he held with distinction to 
the end of the War. 

Captain Viscount Folkestone served throughout 
the War with the i/4th Wilts Regiment in India, 
Egypt, and Palestine, being severely wounded in the 
memorable operations in* front of Jerusalem. Sub- 
sequently, from September, 1918, whilst still unfit for 
general service, he served as A.D.C. to the G.O.C. 
Northern Command until February, 1919. 

Sub-Lieutenant the Honorable Edward Pleydell- 
Bouverie, R.N., before he was 15 years of age, joined 
H.M.S. "Hogue" direct from Dartmouth as midship- 
man, and served at sea throughout the War. He 
was on tbe "Hogue" when it was torpedoed, but 
was amongst those rescued. He was on board H.M.S. 
"Orion" at the Battle of Jutland, and afterwards 
served on patrol boats in the Channel. 

Sir Philip Sassoon was in the East Kent 
Yeomanry Territorials at the outbreak of war. He 
immediately placed his services at the disposal of the 
Empire. A public meeting was held, at which his 
constituents enthusiastically declared their satisfaction 
at his action, and pledged their support to him in his 
absence. Sir Philip went to France in November, 



66 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

1914, on General Sir Henry Rawlinson's Staff, and 
did useful work in various capacities, becoming 
Private Secretary to Field-Marshal Sir Douglas Haig 
on his taking over the command of the British Army 
in France and Flanders, December, 1915. The value 
of Sir Philip's work is shewn by the fact that he con- 
tinued in his office until the end of the War, receiving 
high commendation from his chief, who, with the 
characteristic of the Scot, was never lavish with his 
praise. Sir Philip was mentioned several times in 
despatches, and received the thanks of the represen- 
tatives of our Allies. The high appreciation in which 
he was held is indicated by the honours conferred 
upon him. He is the happy possessor of the C.M.G., 
the 1914 Star, the Legion of Honour, presented by 
Marshal Joffre, the Black Star, presented by M. 
Clemenceau, and the Croix de Guerre, presented by 
Marshal Petain. Belgium gave him the Order of the 
Crown and the Croix de Guerre. 

Sir Philip's work was not an easy task. His office 
was a hut in the grounds of the Field-Marshal's Head- 
quarters. The correspondence was voluminous, and 
the many tasks were often delicate and full of diffi- 
culty, requiring the skill of a tactful man, who could 
bring to bear upon the questions at issue a cool judg- 
ment and a trained intelligence. 

Those who remained at home did much to hearten 
the men in their preparations for their arduous tasks. 
It would be invidious to mention names. The residents 
of Folkestone became a committee of entertainment 
and hospitality. The principal hotels and the poorest 
cottages were opened to the soldiers. Mr. Gelardi 
had soldiers billeted at the Grand, and on Sunday 



SHAPING THE NEW ARMY. 67 

afternoons invited practically any boys who cared 
to accept the invitation to tea, the parties often 
numbering 250 to 300. When the military left they 
presented him with a silver rose bowl, which is among 
his most treasured possessions. 

Visitors to Folkestone during the War were 
impressed by the ugliness of the Rest Camps, par- 
ticularly the block of houses enclosed by corrugated 
iron in the principal part of the West End. But they 
did not know what a boon these camps were to the 
men who were crossing to France. The Rest Camp 
was for many their last sleeping place on English soil ; 
the last bit of ground over which they walked was 
from the Leas down the Slope, which now should be 
known as Victory Road. Their memories depended 
upon the treatment they received during the last 
hours in the Rest Camp. We are glad to include the 
following particulars supplied by those responsible 
for the Military Command of the town : — 

Owing to weather conditions, mines, and various 
causes, the sailings of the boats with troops from 
Folkestone to Boulogne, Calais, etc., had at times, 
in the winter frequently, to be cancelled, which meant 
accommodating troops in Folkestone for the night 
and billeting them in the town. This was possible, 
although inconvenient, as long as the numbers were 
only small, but, as the capacity of the port and the 
numbers for embarkation increased, it was realised 
that other means of accommodation must be provided 
for the comfort and well-being of the men. 

In August, 1915, Colonel R. Burns-Begg was sent 
from the War Office to Folkestone to organise a system 
of Rest Camps, his great ability as an organiser making 



68 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

him especially suitable for the appointment. The 
post of Town Commandant, Folkestone, was then 
created, the area at first consisting of Folkestone only, 
but in 1916 it was enlarged to include Sandgate, 
Seabrook, Hythe, Cheriton, and the village of Salt- 
wood. In addition, the appointment carried the duty 
of Competent Military Authority for Kent, except 
the Dover and the Thames and Medway Defence 
Areas, and portions of Kent in the London District 
Area. Seventy Military Police, of which twelve were 
mounted, were attached to the Command. In 1917 
the title of Town Commandant was altered to Com- 
mandant Folkestone Area. 

In 1915 blocks of houses facing the sea, known as 
Marine Terrace and Marine Parade, were acquired, 
and in January 191 6, No. 1 Rest Camp was opened, 
with Major, now Lieut-.Col., H. F. Sparrow as Com- 
mandant, and with Major G. C. Grahame as Assistant 
Commandant. The Camp was equipped with cook- 
houses and all conveniences, and a large Y.M.C.A. 
Hut, part of which was given by Mrs. Paul, of 20, 
Grimston Gardens. There was sleeping accommodation 
in the houses for two thousand two hundred men. 

In May, 1916, another Rest Camp was opened in 
a big field on the West Cliff Estate, off the Bathurst 
Road. This was composed of Indian pattern tents 
heated with stoves, and had the usual equipment 
and a large Y.M.C.A. Hut, and was called No. 2 Rest 
Camp, with a capacity for one thousand men. 

It was foreseen that still more accommodation 
would have to be provided, and the blocks of houses 
on the Leas which include Clifton Crescent, and are 
bounded by Earls Avenue on the west, Sandgate Road 



SHAPING THE NEW ARMY. 69 

on the north, Clifton Road on the east, and the Leas 
on the south, were acquired in November, 1916, and 
opened early in 1917 as No. 3 Rest Camp, under 
Lieut. -Col. H. F. Sparrow, with Major E. L. Hunter, 
M.C., as Assistant Commandant, No. 2 Camp being 
attached to this Camp for all purposes. 

Major G. C. Grahame took over command of No. 1, 
to which later on No. 4, the Territorial Drill Hall, 
was attached. 

The accommodation at No. 3, when it was completely 
equipped, was for 5,000 men, and great credit is due 
to Lieut. -Col. Sparrow and Major Hunter, M.C., for 
the very high state of efficiency reached in this Camp 
and the great comfort provided for both officers and 
men. This Camp, besides having the most up-to-date 
appliances in the cook-houses, hot bath houses, etc., 
had also a dairy, where butter was made from Glaxo, 
Ambrosial, and other brands of dried milk. Thousands 
of pounds have been saved by the prevention of all 
waste and by the splendid management of the institutes 
and messing in this Camp. 

Up to January, 1917, the Staff of the Commandant 
Folkestone Area consisted only of an Assistant Provost 
Marshal and an Assistant Provost Marshal for the 
Canadians, but in January Major the Honourable 
E. J. Mills, D.S.O., Kent Yeomanry, was appointed 
Garrison Adjutant, and in March the Staff was in- 
creased by an assistant garrison adjutant, a quarter- 
master, a staff captain (Q) and a billeting officer — the 
last named required for dealing with the large number 
of officers who had to be billeted almost daily, parti- 
cularly when sailings from Folkestone were cancelled. 

In 1 91 8 the force of Military Police was increased 



70 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

to eighty foot and twenty mounted, and the total 
accommodation of the port had been increased to 
fourteen thousand. 

In October 1917, Colonel R. Burns-Begg had to 
relinquish his appointment owing to a breakdown in 
health, due to the overstrain on account of the work 
entailed. He was succeeded by Lieut. -Col. the Hon. 
E. J. Mills, D.S.O., on 20th December, 1917, which 
appointment Lieut. -Col. Mills held till February, 
1919, after the Armistice, when he vacated to attend 
to his private affairs. Lieut.-Col. E. M. Liddell, of 
the Duke of Wellington's Regiment, took over from 
Lieut.-Col. Mills, and Captain P. Alexander, of the 
Royal Fusiliers, became Garrison Adjutant. 

The average number of men passing through the 
Camps daily during 1917-18 was between 8,000 and 
9,000, but during March and April, 1918, the numbers 
were about 12,000 daily, with a maximum of 16,000 
on one day. The troops passing through comprised 
almost every nationality, English, Dominion and Colon- 
ial Troops, 15,000 Americans, French, Russians, Serbs, 
Indians, Chinese and Kaffirs, West Indians and Fijians. 

In May, 1917, the Drill Hall belonging to the 1st 
Volunteer Battalion "The Buffs" and the Cinque 
Ports Artillery was formed into No. 4 Rest Camp, 
attached to No. 1. Accommodation was provided 
for four hundred men, bringing the total for the 
station at this date up to 8,600. 

Early in the year it was decided to utilise the services 
of the members of the Women's Legion in the cook- 
houses at the Rest Camps, which entailed having a 
hostel attached to Nos. 1 and 3, for their accommo- 
dation. Later on the members of the Women's 
Legion were incorporated in the Q.M.A.A.C, and 



SHAPING THE NEW ARMY. 71 

their staffs rendered great services during the 
War and added much to the comfort of the troops 
passing through the Camps. 

In April, 1917, a Tented Camp was pitched to the 
east of Hill Road, Cherry Garden Avenue, to accom- 
modate 2,000 Chinese or Kaffirs. This Camp was 
designated the Labour Concentration Camp, under 
the command of Lieut. -Col. F. Hopley. An auxiliary 
camp was pitched on the west side of the road opposite 
this camp to contain another 2,000 Asiatic or African 
natives ; these were found invaluable for the heavy 
labour work, especially loading and unloading shells, 
etc., at the front. 

During the summer the Chinese labour was utilised 
to build hutments of re-inforced concrete, and this 
work was carried our under the direction of the R.E. 
Cherry Garden Camp, as it came to be called, was 
really two separate blocks, with kitchens, hospitals, 
etc., and could comfortably house 1,500 men. 

By the end of May, 1919, nearly nine million men 
had passed through Folkestone embarking to and 
disembarking from France. 

Six months after the signing of the Armistice some 
4,000 leave men arrived from and returned to the Army 
of Occupation daily, besides cadres for dispersal and 
re-forming, and various drafts, breaking the journey at 
Rest Camps for a good meal, and some staying overnight. 

It is interesting to note that the last gift received by 
men leaving England was a copy of the New Testa- 
ment or the Book of Psalms, presented by the 
Scripture Gift Mission. Nearly 1,000,000 men gladly 
availed themselves of the generosity of the Society, 
and doubtless found inspiration and comfort in the 
literature of courage and consolation in the New 
Testament. 



CHAPTER V. 

IN CASE IT HAPPENED. 
By the Editor. 

In War the only thing that is certain is that every- 
thing is uncertain. The chances may be hundred to one 
that a given emergency will not arise, but the possibility 
must be recognised and provision made for the 
eventuality. The unexpected has an awkward habit 
of coming to pass. It is not surprising, therefore, 
that many preparations were made "in case it 
happened. " 

In areas including coast towns there was neces- 
sarily an element of risk. Arrangements were made 
to meet it. Forewarned is forearmed, and Folkestone, 
in common with other towns on the south-east coast, 
was forewarned with dramatic suddenness. The 
Military Authorities sent out instructions for the 
formation of Emergency Committees, dealing with 
matters that might arise in the eventuality of an 
attack upon our shores, or a bombardment from 
the sea. It was pointed out that the worst thing that 
could happen would be the creation of panic ; nothing 
could be more harmful or dangerous than a general 
movement in the nature of flight on the part of women 
and children. No action was to be taken until ordered 
by the Military, and then it would be properly con- 
trolled, and directed by the Police. It was of the 
utmost importance that the movement of troops and 




Photo] [Lam' erl Weston. 

Lieut.-Col. Sir Stephen Penfold 
(Mayor of Folkestone). 



IN CASE IT HAPPENED. 73 

artillery should not be hampered by the presence of 
a considerable body of civilians. Road maps of the 
coast towns were prepared and privately circulated, 
giving instructions as to the roads which would be 
required for Military operations. 

The War Office sent instructions for the Com- 
mittee to undertake the guidance of the civil popula- 
tion to places of safety, and to remove or destroy all 
food stuffs and material likely to be of service to the 
enemy. At certain periods, in the dark days of the 
War, provision merchants were instructed to keep 
their stocks as low as possible, and at one time arrange - 
ments were in readiness to receive a considerable 
inflow of the French population, in case it should be 
necessary to evacuate coast towns on the other side 
of the Channel. Many proclamations were ready to 
be issued ' ' in case it happened. ' ' 

In the unlikely event of a State of Emergency having 
to be declared, it was arranged that the exodus of 
civilians who chose to leave the town should be by 
way of Paddlesworth to Lyminge ; thence to Stone 
Street, Brabourne and Smeeth, and on to Cranbrook. 
Food would be provided along the route. Each person 
was to be advised to take food for two days, warm 
clothing and money, but no other baggage. Upon 
a State of Emergency being declared by the proper 
Authority, the Military would take over control, and 
the Chief of Police would become responsible for the 
care of the civil population. The Government inti- 
mated that the instructions were not sent out in view 
of any immediate apprehension of an attempt to land 
a hostile force in this country. That was improbable 
in view of our Naval superiority ; but it was never 



74 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

regarded as so remote that it could be ignored, and 
extensive Military preparations were made to protect 
the country against the danger. 

It was regarded as unwise not to take all steps to 
provide, "as far as human foresight enables us, against 
every possible contingency. A large number of 
Special Constables are in readiness to assist the civil 
population and instruct those who desire to leave the 
town the direction in which they should proceed, and 
to advise the civil population whether or not they 
should remain in their houses or leave the town." 

The Mayor called a number of meetings and took 
the necessary action to meet a series of contingencies, 
which, happily, never arose. Provision was made 
to ascertain the number of vehicles and horses in the 
town. The owners were seen and certain instructions 
were given as to their removal, or if that could not 
be done, for their destruction, so as to be useless to 
the enemy. Similar action was taken in regard to 
motor cars, cycles, live stock of all descriptions, food 
and forage and petrol. 

In the event of the civilian population leaving, 
Special Constables were to be placed throughout the 
town, giving directions, and to make provision for 
the removal of all civil cases from the Hospital who 
were unable to walk, and for the use of conveyances 
for the aged and infirm and young children. 

The Special Constables rendered assistance of a 
most valuable character. Their ordinary duties were 
onerous, but to those were added responsibilities in 
connection with what might have happened. Motor 
cyclists were provided with hand-bells to ring as a 
signal to assemble. Picked men were to call others in 



IN CASE IT HAPPENED. 75 

certain areas, so that a force of 200 reliable men would 
have been available in less than two hours. 

Hints of what was being done gave thrills to some 
timid souls, and notices were prepared to calm their 
troubled spirits. They were assured that there was 
no likelihood of any such contingency occurring. 
Some inhabitants rather resented the motherly 
attempts at calming their spirits. One day, when the 
flag was down from a public building, during an air 
raid, a well-known resident sent to an official a 
hammer and a box of nails, with a suggestion that it 
might be put up. 

The little town of Bridlington was entirely un- 
fortified, but on the sea-front gardens there were three 
old artillery guns, which could not be fired. They 
were pointing seaward. The Town Council decided 
to remove these so that "the enemy may have no 
excuse whatever for firing on the town. ' ' The 
enemy had plenty of excuse for attacking Folkestone 
and the towns adjacent ; but they were not provided 
with the opportunity. The Military had elaborate 
plans worked out in minute detail. It is fairly safe 
to say that if a German Force had succeeded in effecting 
a landing, it would never have left our shores. It 
would have been very difficult and costly to land such 
a force, but it could not be regarded as by any means 
impossible. In case it happened, arrangements were 
made to give a hot reception to the adventurers. 
Roads were mapped out for troops, and emplacements 
were ready for guns. Officers had full instructions 
what to do in certain eventualities, and had well 
rehearsed their parts. 

The Chief Constable had minute details prepared 



76 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

for the guidance of his assistants, and was ready to 
act immediately the signal was given. A code was 
decided upon in cipher for use between the Military 
and the Chief of Police. Stations were assigned to 
certain men, so that they knew where to go, and had 
the signal sounded they would very quickly have been 
at their posts. 

A General Emergency Committee was carefully 
selected from residents of experience and discretion. 
They were pledged to absolute secrecy. Special 
duties were assigned to a few men who could be relied 
upon to remain as silent as the grave. It must have 
been amusing, and not a little irritating, for these 
men to have read, or have listened, to the hysterical 
vapourings of those who condemned because they did 
not know. The latter were shouting for protection for 
the town, and those who were responsible for that 
very thing could not speak a word. The fault-finders 
were usually of the type of the gentlemen who, when 
the maroon sounded calling up the Territorials, 
thought the Germans were coming, or had actually 
fired on the coast ; and they left their refreshments 
and ran to the Central Station as rabbits at the 
sound of a gun flee to cover. 

The emergency work done may be judged by some 
general information. The Advisory Committee 
assigned to Mr. G. J. Swoffer the task of entering into 
communication with every owner of a horse or donkey, 
cart, carriage or other vehicle, and to give the in- 
formation that he must, on receiving notice that a 
State of Emergency had arisen, immediately remove 
his horse or vehicle from Folkestone, unless it was 
required by the Military, and if time did not permit 



IN CASE IT HAPPENED. 77 

of its removal, it must be rendered useless to the 
enemy. Mr. W. R. Boughton was commissioned to 
communicate to all owners of motor-cycles and motor- 
cars a similar notice, with instructions as to the best 
way of destroying the vehicles if the emergency arose. 
It was expected that the red buses, and all public 
service cars, would be required for the use of troops. 
Mr. H. H. Barton, of Temple & Barton, set out to warn 
the owners of cows and sheep that they must be 
prepared, in the event of notice, immediately to remove 
their stock from Folkestone. Directions were given 
what to do if the cattle could not be moved. Mr. G. 
Boyd had charge of food and forage. He visited persons 
having stocks, and informed them what should be done. 
Mr. F. Seager called upon the users and sellers of petrol, 
giving them notice that, in a State of Emergency, 
they should run to waste all the petrol not required by 
the Military. The Borough Engineer had lists made 
of tradesmen, builders, and others possessing tools, 
barbed wire, and other similar things which might 
be useful to the enemy. It was arranged to have 
gangs of men with the necessary tools in readiness 
to carry out any field works required. 

It was made clear that there was to be no removal 
or destruction of property without instructions from 
the Military Authorities or the Police. Some wise 
critics thought the whole movement an evidence of 
panic and a sheer waste of time ; but they had not 
the disquieting information which came through to 
the Authorities, and which obviously could not be 
made public without creating a great deal of panic. 

Many questions arose in the Emergency Committee 
as to what should be done in this or that eventuality. 



78 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

What, for instance, should happen to the large stocks 
of wine ? There were stored at the harbour some 
thousands of cases of champagne. It would be 
practically impossible to remove them. Were they 
to be destroyed or left for the invaders to drink the 
Mayor's health ? 

It was more than suspected that the German Navy 
was only waiting the chance of a fog to attempt some 
sort of invasion of the coast. The suspicion was 
fully justified by after events. No foot of foeman 
trod our shore, for the simple reason that the first 
line of defence, the British Navy, did its duty so 
magnificently that Germany never had a ghost of a 
chance upon the high seas. 

There can be no eulogy worthy of the strong, silent 
men who kept watch so faithfully. To them more 
than to all others Folkestone owes its safety. How 
splendidly sailors of the day maintained the old 
traditions of Blake, Drake, Nelson, and the rest, who 
established the tradition that Britannia rules the 
waves ! How completely the German Navy accepted 
the tradition, when it was bottled up in the Kiel 
Canal. Only upon one memorable occasion did it 
steam out in full force, and then it came out to 
surrender to Admiral Beatty. 

In Folkestone Admiral Sir Roger Keyes was a 
familiar figure, and there was general pleasure when 
the news came that he and his merry men, in the true 
old English style, had sailed to a pirates' lair, called 
Zeebrugge, where a nest of submarines lay during the 
day, and slunk out in the night to torpedo merchant 
ships and assassinate their passengers, to the horror 
of the world. It was a great day in Naval history 



IN CASE IT HAPPENED. 79 

when Sir Roger and his men corked up Zeebrugge 
Harbour like a ginger- beer bottle, and did it under the 
very nose of the enemy. The Navy enabled the 
civilians to walk the town in comfort and safety. 

There is no reason for secrecy now as to the German 
plans to bombard the coast by long-range guns. 
It is known that a giant gun had been prepared for the 
special benefit of the South-East Coast. It was the 
intention to mount this gigantic piece of ordnance in 
the neighbourhood of Ostend, and this design was only 
frustrated by the courage and vigilance of our boys 
who fly. The Air Force rained destruction incessantly 
on the specially prepared track by which it was alone 
possible to convey the mammoth gun. The gun that 
bombarded Paris was a comparative pigmy beside 
the weapon designed for our special benefit. Had 
it been mounted at Ostend, its range would have 
covered Kent as far as Canterbury, Folkestone, and 
Hythe, while the towns throughout the Isle of 
Thanet would have had to be evacuated. When 
fired at an angle of 45 the shell would pass through 
the air at a maximum height of over 20 miles. At 
this altitude skin friction is reduced to a minimum, 
as there is believed to be no air there, and through this 
void of space the shell would travel for over thirty miles 
before the force of gravity would once again draw 
it within the air belt, where it would begin its down- 
ward path toward the objective. 

We may be very thankful that the Germans did 
not carry out their plans as they had expected. The 
wonder is that these things did not happen ; for all 
the probabilites were in their favour, though the 
public knew it not. It is not speculation to record 



80 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

that the enemy fully intended to make an attempt 
at a great bombardment of the coast in the summer of 
19 18. According to all the laws of warfare, the town 
ought to have been bombarded ; the enemy should 
have made the attempt. It would have given immense 
prestige, and have influenced the policy of Neutrals as 
nothing else could. It might have been very costly, 
but almost any price could have been paid to destroy 
the tradition that England could not be invaded. 
"There's a Divinity that shapes our ends," and 
when all has been said it is just a case of the 
"stars in their courses" fighting against Sisera. 
It was not to be. Perhaps the final analysis will 
give no other explanation than that which might be 
conveyed in old Father Faber's lines : 

"For right is right, since God is God, 
And right the day must win." 
The Chief Constable had his work enormously 
increased by the task of preparing for the things that 
never happened. One of the curious phases of the 
War was the development of the spy mania. It 
served a useful purpose, and doubtless provided an 
absorbing occupation for many persons who otherwise 
would have been brooding over their ailments or the 
calamities they foresaw befalling the country. People 
who read the blood-curdling stories of the "Female 
Vampire, ' ' feasted upon the cinema displays of ' ' The 
Enemy in our Midst, ' ' or sat through the perform- 
ances of popular spy-plays, were filled with the very 
laudable ambition of rivalling Sherlock Holmes. 
Folkestone had its self-commissioned force of detec- 
tives, determined to track down every Hun in the 
district who was signalling information to unknown 
ships far out at sea. 




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Many of the amateur Secret Service men and women 
watched night by night; not a few of them from opposite 
sides of the road watched each other. Some devoted 
their attention to the windows along the sea-front, 
on the look out for suspicious lights. All lights were 
forbidden by the Police, and the fines for breach of 
the law must have totalled up to a considerable sum. 
Information was sent to the Chief Constable of blinds 
that moved three times to the right, or twice to the 
left, or were pulled up rapidly and drawn again at the 
same hour each night. Investigation showed that 
in one case a zealous old lady, dressing for dinner, 
drew the curtain a little aside in order to keep observa- 
tion upon a bend of the road where she had noticed 
a suspicious person standing in the darkness. From 
that spot Sherlock Holmes II., who had been the cause 
of the mischief, went round with a proud heart to 
report to the police. The net result was a warning 
to the old lady and a ios. fine imposed on the innocent, 
but legally responsible, hotel proprietor. 

Among a sheaf of spy-stories there are some which 
should certainly find a permanent record. One of 
the most dramatic episodes was related from several 
sources. Information was given to the police of a 
mysterious light up by the hill. It moved in semi- 
circles. Some watchers had seen it pass through the 
air very rapidly ten or twelve times in succession. 
Others observed it moving slowly, exactly the same 
way, five or six times. Occasionally it flashed very 
brightly, but not always in one colour ; at other times 
it was a clear, steady light. There could be no doubt 
it was an elaborate code, giving important information. 
Some were sure that the worker of the signals was 



82 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

intimating the arrival of fresh troops at the Camp. 
It was undeniable that the flashes were seen upon 
several occasions just after troops came into Shorn- 
cliffe Station. Attempts were made to interpret the 
code, but these were speculative, and finally it was 
determined to arrest the person or persons working 
the signals. Very careful preparations were made ; 
men were selected and armed, as there might be 
desperate resistance. Anyone who would risk flashing 
signals across the sea would certainly be armed, and in 
a critical move might destroy the signals, and take 
his own life, or the lives of others. Reliable men were 
set on the trail, and they did not fail. After watching 
for several nights in vain, their opportunity came. 
It was a lovely moonlight night, with just enough 
mist over the hills to obscure minor objects. Ships 
were in the Channel held up by the Dover signals ; 
their forms could be seen clearly, though their lights 
were out. A breeze was blowing up, but only enough 
to create a murmur through the fast -falling leaves. 
The strange light moved with uncanny precision ; 
it was located, and silently the armed men came out 
from their hiding place. They drew in upon the 
unsuspecting signaller. A moment's pause, and then, 
together, they dashed to the attack. It might mean 
a tough fight, and serious results for somebody, but 
there was no faltering or turning back. The affair 
did not last long. The offender was laid low by a 
well-aimed blow, though his figure could only be located 
by a line of shadow. Then the secret was revealed 
in its naked truth. An allotment holder, anxious 
to keep birds off his ground, had conceived the brilliant 
idea of hanging up a piece of an old broken looking- 



IN CASE IT HAPPENED. 83 

glass. It was tied with string to a big stick. As it 
swung it reflected any light there was in the sky. 
When the proposed War Museum is furnished the 
Chief Constable ought to present that piece of plate 
glass to the Authorities, that the generations yet un- 
born may know what Sherlock Holmes II. did for his 
country in the Great War. 

A lady in the West-End reported that she strongly 
suspected some persons who had recently removed into 
the house next door were spies, as she was certain 
that they had a wireless installation on their premises. 
During several nights she had kept lonely vigil, and 
had distinctly heard the clicking of wireless coming 
from their rooms. She had not seen anything, but 
she knew the sound, and was sure she was not mistaken. 
Enquiries were carried out by the police, from which 
it was shown that the occupants were thoroughly 
loyal subjects. This was notified to the lady, but 
it did not satisfy her. She returned again, and further 
reported to the Authorities that the wireless was still 
going ; she was convinced. In proof of her statement 
she produced a sheet of paper covered with dots and 
dashes, which she had taken down during the previous 
night, while her neighbour was working the wireless. 
She was so convinced that she urged that the 
Authorities should get the message decoded, and they 
would see for themselves the importance of it. To 
clear the matter up, observation was kept upon the 
premises for a night or two, and the clicking noise was 
located ; but it was not the working of a wireless 
installation, but simply the action of a revolving 
cowl on the chimney pot. 

Upon another occasion some residents reported 



84 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

signalling from the roof of a certain large building 
early in the morning. Observation was kept, but no 
signalling was detected. The informants were told 
that they had probably been mistaken ; but this 
would not do. They knew that they had discovered 
something that should be investigated, and they gave 
hints of information to the War Office. Besides, 
had they not seen, during the night before, the very 
thing done ? and better still, that very morning the 
traitor had forgotten to take the usual precaution of 
removing the apparatus used for signalling. It 
could be seen. The informant spoke with the accent 
of assurance, and two responsible officials at once went 
to the premises. They made a careful search, and 
discovered upon the flat roof a clothes-line stretched 
from one chimney-stack to another, on a portion of 
which the maid, early in the morning, hung out the 
mats to air. 

The spy mania, while it was an amusing feature, 
sometimes was very irritating. It at least showed the 
determination of the people to take any precautions 
within their power. In conjunction with the 
Metropolitan Detective Service, the local police force 
kept a close watch upon the thousands of persons 
crossing from the Harbour, and some smart captures 
were effected. 

Among the most important of the precautionary 
methods was the registration of aliens. It began in 
Folkestone on the 7th August, 1914, and was soon 
applied to all parts of the country. The Chief 
Constable worked out a system of his own. Some of 
the features commended themselves to the Authori- 
ties, and are still in use. The magnitude of the work 



IN CASE IT HAPPENED. 85 

may be judged from the fact that 17,434 aliens have 
been registered in the town. Large numbers of the 
refugees who were sent to other centres were not 
registered locally, or the total would have been very 
much larger. More than 10,000 aliens have, for a 
time, made their home in the town ; 4,155 have 
been in Folkestone for the purposes of business or on 
holidays ; and nearly 3,000 Belgian soldiers have spent 
their leave from Active Service in the hospitable 
homes of the residents.. It was oft-times amusing to 
see groups of "les petits braves" playing upon the 
beach with the children ; with the abandonment of 
the little people to the pleasures of the moment, they 
paddled and made sand-castles. What a contrast to 
the life they had lived in the trenches ! They expressed 
great delight when addressed in their own language, 
and never tired of hearing about the charms of the 
district. 

During the last three years the arrivals and 
departures of aliens to and from the area have averaged 
about 500 per month. It is interesting to note among 
the different nationalities registered thirty countries 
are represented, including Russia, Siam, Egypt, 
Rumania, Serbia, China, Armenia, Austria, Greece, 
and Turkey. 

When feeling against the aliens ran very high it 
seemed that there would be serious unpleasantness for 
naturalized Germans and Austrians who remained 
at liberty in the town. Some of them were very old, 
and in one or two cases so infirm that they could not 
continue their usual avocations. Two or three others 
had been naturalized many years ago, and were 
bitterly opposed to the Kaiser and his military caste. 



86 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

But that availed nothing with a number of persons who 
threatened what they would do unless the aliens were 
all interned. Happily, there was never anything 
more than threatening and rumours. The police had 
close supervision of all enemy aliens in the county, 
and could at any moment have produced their records, 
and even their finger-prints, and they always knew 
where to find those whose names were upon their lists. 
The system of registration was very carefully carried 
out. A full description of the person was given, and a 
photograph attached. It was not permissible for a 
registered man to leave the district without obtaining 
a special permit, and then it was required that he should 
report himself to the police in the area in which he 
went to reside. By this means all the aliens, whether 
suspected or not, were under police supervision. 

The things that might have happened and did not 
come to pass were very many ; but it was wise on the 
part of the Authorities to take no unnecessary risks. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE AIR RAIDS. 
By Arthur J. Crowhurst. 

The most vivid phase of the war so far as Folkestone 
was affected was the air raids phase. It surpassed all 
other experiences of those "crowded hours" of 1914- 
19, in its effect and influence upon the life and activi- 
ties of the local community. It was not until May 25th, 
1917, that a raid on the town actually occurred, but 
that ordeal was horrific, never to be effaced from the 
memory. For ten minutes or so death literally rained 
from the sky — a sky of azure blue — causing the streets 
in some parts of the town to run with blood, and carry- 
ing bleak desolation into scores of homes. 

No warning of the imminence of the deadly peril was 
received by the town authorities — although it is said 
that something of the approaching danger was known 
of and spoken about by some workers on the Harbour — 
and the visitation was wholly unexpected. Folkestone 
had somehow allowed itself to be lulled into a soothing 
sense of security. It regarded the war almost with 
complacency so far as actual danger went. Perhaps 
it was too complacent. It was familiar with the 
happenings and the panoply of war in various 
aspects. There had been " alarums and excursions." 
Even before England had thrown down the gage 
to Germany we had watched our mighty battleships 
swiftly surging their way through the waters of the 
Channel en route to their stations in the North Sea ; 



88 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

some of us had seen or heard the troops silently march- 
ing in the dead of night from Shorncliffe to the railway 
station. We had seen a great deal of the aftermath of 
war. Quite early the Belgian refugees had landed in 
their thousands, and we soon became accustomed to 
the sight of wounded soldiers, likewise to the distant 
thunder of the guns in Flanders and Picardy. 
Thousands of troops embarked and disembarked at the 
Harbour, and many of the best houses in the town had 
been taken over by the military for use as rest camps, 
enclosed with hideous corrugated iron fencing, with 
entrances diligently guarded by sentries who challenged 
all and sundry if there were a doubt as to their having 
any business there. 

There were these and many other things to remind 
us that we were at war — at war with an implacable, 
unscrupulous, and barbaric foe. The husbands and 
sons of many citizens had fallen in the fighting, but 
wives and parents carried on with little outward sign 
of their grief. There had been enemy aircraft raids 
east and west of Folkestone, with loss of life on each 
side, not so many miles away ; we were conscious of 
the fact that we were well within the war zone, and 
there was no sound reason to think that the Hun 
would spare us. On the contrary, the main line of 
communications with the vast battle plains on the 
Western Front ran plumb through the heart of 
Folkestone, and the town and district were an armed 
camp of vital military, if not strategic, importance. 

In the minds of a few people there was one fact 
which they felt might cause the enemy to exclude the 
town from his sinister attentions from air and sea, and 
that was that in the Cemetery there reposed the 











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THE AIR RAIDS. 89 

remains of a number of German sailors, men who lost 
their lives on the occasion of the foundering of the 
" Grosser Kurfurst " on May 31st, 1878, and some of 
whose comrades were gallantly rescued by Folkestone 
fishermen. Greatly daring, the Mayor of Hythe (Mr. 
William R. Cobay) had written to a prominent London 
newspaper, pointing out this fact, and suggesting that, 
in consequence, the district might hope to remain 
immune from bombardment. How anybody acquainted 
with the mentality of the Hun could found any hope 
upon such a reason it is difficult to understand. 

At any rate, whatever may have been the cause, 
Folkestone went scathless for nearly three years. 
Prior to May 25th, 1917, all our suffering had been 
vicarious, and we went about our lawful business 
with scarcely a tremor. The Great War might rage 
elsewhere ; vast areas of Europe might be a welter of 
blood ; German submarines might lurk beneath the 
waters of the earth and blow sailors, soldiers, and others 
to kingdom come ; nations might go up in flames 
and millions be put to death ; but there was little or 
nothing to disturb the even round of our daily life 
in Folkestone such as we had known it since those 
seemingly far-off pre-war days. The gigantic conflict 
was being waged with all the resources of art and 
science, but others were "in it," not we. In the war 
zone as we were, we yet viewed the war with a more or 
less strong sense of detachment, the majority perhaps 
vainly imagining that this happy state of things would 
continue until the end of the chapter. 

Such was the local atmosphere of serenity and 
security which was blasted into oblivion by the high 
explosive bombs hurled upon the town of Folkestone 



90 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

on the evening of May 25th, 1917. Truly it was a 
terrific awakening, horrifying, for a brief interval 
almost stupefying ! If the town staggered and reeled 
under the blow — a blow so utterly unexpected — 
perhaps it may be forgiven, for the raid was (up to that 
time) the biggest and most deadly raid of the War ! 

In the introduction to this section an attempt has 
been made to give an idea of the local circumstances 
and attitude at the date of the Great Raid. But events 
under this heading of local cognizance, if not of actual 
local incidence, should be dealt with in chronological 
sequence before that dire disaster is described in detail. 
Dover was the locale of the first aircraft raid on this 
country, a solitary German aeroplane appearing over 
that town on December 24th, 1914, and dropping a 
few bombs, but without inflicting any loss of life, and 
damaging property to a small extent only. Dover is 
separated from Folkestone by only six miles, which is 
a mere nothing in this distance-annihilating era of the 
aeroplane, but Folkestone took no more than a casual 
interest in the episode. It may be worth mentioning 
that January 19-20, 1915, was the date of the first 
Zeppelin raid on England ; on that occasion four 
civilians were killed and fifteen civilians and one 
soldier were injured in Norfolk. 

On May 3rd, 1915, in the morning, some excitement 
was caused in Folkestone by the report that a German 
aeroplane had crossed to Dover and was on its way to 
our town. There was a sound of gunfire away to the 
eastward, in which direction many people, leaving 
their occupation and going into the streets, strained 
their eyes, whilst not a little commotion was created 



THE AIR RAIDS. 91 

by a military lorry on which an anti-aircraft gun was 
mounted careering through the town by a devious 
route to the Dover Road to take a part in the prospec- 
tive affray. Some distant object, apparently an 
aeroplane, was seen away up over the Downs, and it 
was reported later that pieces of a shell from an anti- 
aircraft gun had fallen in a field a little distance from 
the Valiant Sailor. It was not, however, a German 
aeroplane which was fired at, but one of our own ! 
What had happened was this : There was in existence 
an order that every British aeroplane crossing from 
France to England should previously send intimation 
of its coming, in default of which it would be fired at. 
On this day an airman had omitted to do this, and 
consequently his machine was mistaken for a hostile 
craft. 

On August 9th, 1915, many inhabitants were aroused 
just before midnight by the reverberations of terrific 
explosions, and these who looked out eastwards saw 
vivid flashes. A Zeppelin was making a raid on Dover. 
The din must have been deafening at the actual 
locale of the raid, but it was again a case of much cry 
and little wool, the casualties being limited to three 
sailors injured. This was the only instance of a 
Zeppelin dropping bombs on Dover, although on two 
other occasions enemy airships were in the neigh- 
bourhood of the town, one being so seriously damaged 
by gunfire that it descended in the Channel and was 
destroyed by Allied airmen from Dunkirk. Dover 
was, however, bombed by aeroplanes on quite a number 
of occasions. 

On October 13th, 1915, at a comparatively 
early hour of the night a Zeppelin discharged 



92 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

bombs on the Canadian Camp at Otterpool (near 
Lympne) and at Stanford, in the neighbourhood 
of Westenhanger Station, which is only about 
eight miles from Folkestone, where the sound 
of the explosions was heard by many people, 
flashes being seen from the Leas. No civilians 
were killed or injured, although some houses were 
missed by a very narrow margin, and there was some 
damage to property. But our friends from the Land 
of the Maple Leaf did not come off so well. A score 
or more were killed or injured. The official return, 
published since the signing of the Armistice, gives the 
number of killed under the heading of "Sailors and 
Soldiers " as 17 and the number of injured as 21. These 
figures may have included casualties in other areas 
which were bombed that night, but undoubtedly the 
majority related to Canadians stationed at Otterpool. 
Associated with this raid at Otterpool Camp was a 
remarkable instance of the futility of the censorship 
on that occasion. The British Press at this period 
was hedged about with all sorts of restrictions in regard 
to air raids. In the case of nocturnal visitations the 
precise localities bombed were not to be stated. Such 
mention had been made in the case of some of the 
earlier raids, but definite instructions had been sent 
to the newspapers that the names of towns and places 
were not to be included in such limited reports as 
were permissible. Consequently in the reports in the 
English Press there was no indication that the Cana- 
dian Camp at Otterpool had been bombed. But the 
whole story was told in the ' ' Evening News, ' ' published 
at New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, on October 16th, 1915 
— only three days after the raid. On the front and 



THE AIR RAIDS. 93 

principal news page there appeared the following article, 
headed in big type : " Canadians were killed in Zeppelin 
Raids — Eleven Artillerymen Fall Victims to Hun ' ' : — 

(Canadian Press Dispatch). 

Ottowa, Ontario, October 16th. — The Zeppelin raids 
on England have now come home to Canada. From the 
latest casualty list and from information obtained from 
local militia sources, it would appear that there were n 
Canadian Artillerymen who lost their lives in the last 
raid, that of the 13th. 

The total military casualties reported in the official 
statement by the British authorities were 14 killed and 13 
wounded, so that it would appear the Canadians were the 
chief sufferers. Besides the eleven men who lost their 
lives, three are reported as missing and three wounded. 

All these cases took place at Otterpool Camp, Kent, 
England. The casualties took place among the 5th Brigade 
of the Canadian Second Division Artillery. As far as is 
known, these are the first Canadians to meet death as a 
result of a Zeppelin raid. 

Last night's casualties of this type are all Western men, 
except one, whose next of kin is given as residing in St. 
Catherine's, one who is a member of the 29th Battery. 

As the foregoing was published only three days 
after the raid occurred, the information could not have 
been sent in a letter under cover, but must have gone 
through by cable. Even if it were nobody's business 
to censor the cablegram, it might have been thought 
that it would be somebody's business to prevent the 
details being blazoned forth in a Nova Scotian news- 
paper. Obviously it would be absurd to allow such a 
report to be printed in a Canadian paper if it were 
deemed desirable to forbid English papers to insert it. 

Nearly a year passed without anything happening 
in the air in the immediate vicinity of Folkestone. 
Dover and other parts of Kent were raided, and at 
times there was a little mild excitement in our own 
town caused by the sound of gunfire at a distance, or 



94 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

distant flashes seen at night. Shortly after two 
on the morning of August 25th, 191 6, a Zeppelin 
passed over, or very nearly over, the town, Actually 
the course which it took lay over the inner Harbour, 
and it was travelling at a height of 12,000 feet. It 
was picked up by the searchlight on the hills between 
Folkestone and Dover at 2.15 a.m., according to an 
entry in the records of the local Fire Brigade, and was 
subjected to a brisk cannonading by the anti-aircraft 
guns, the din arousing many from their slumbers. 
Those who looked out from their windows saw a cigar- 
shaped object travelling eastwards. Soon it altered 
its course a point or two to the south — its crew were 
probably endeavouring to baffle the gunners on the 
hills — and eventually disappeared from view. It 
dropped no bombs in this district, but later in the day 
an official report sent out from Berlin contained the 
following : — 

"During the night of August 24-25 several naval 
dirigibles attacked the southern portion of the East 
Coast of England. They dropped numerous bombs 
on the City and the South Eastern district of London 
and the batteries at the naval stations at Harwich 
and Folkestone, and numerous vessels moored in 
Dover Harbour. Everywhere very good results were 
observed. ' ' 

Just before midnight on the 2nd of September, 1916, 
a Zeppelin was heard over the sea, apparently steering 
west. It was subsequently reported that it turned 
northwards after passing Dymchurch, crossing the 
coastline between that place and Lydd. 

Up to this date the arrangements in the immediate 
locality for defence against aerial attacks were not 



THE AIR RAIDS. 95 

organised on any elaborate scale. Apart from the 
small weapons on lorries, the only anti-aircraft guns 
were those stationed on the hills between Folkestone 
and Dover. Whether the military mind was at one 
with the civilian mind in imagining that the district 
would continue to enjoy immunity from attack, or 
whether the weakness of the defences was due to the 
fact that the War Department had not enough guns 
to be able to spare more for this neighbourhood, is 
a matter which must be left to conjecture. Some 
more guns, however, were placed in position at the 
top of the hill, a quarter of a mile or so from the 
Valiant Sailor, towards the end of the summer of 
1916 — about or after the time when the Zeppelin 
passed over Folkestone Harbour. 

On the night of March 16-17, 1 9 1 7> one or more 
Zeppelins were cruising about in the vicinity, four 
explosive bombs being dropped at Swingfield, four 
incendiary bombs at Hougham, two explosive and 
seven incendiary bombs at Newchurch, three explosive 
and seven incendiary bombs at Appledore Farm, and 
one explosive bomb at Ivychurch. The results were 
restricted to the killing of four sheep at Ivychurch, 
slight damage to a few ceilings, and a few broken 
windows. 

So, without anything more momentous occurring, 
we passed on to the fateful 25th of May, 1917. 

Picture to the mind an exquisite evening in late 
spring, the sun still comparatively high in the heavens, 
and radiating a genial warmth upon the earth — a 
quiet, calm evening when all Nature appeared to be at 
rest. A few minutes after six Folkestone, in the full 



96 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

glory of its springtime garb, resembled a veritable 
paradise of peace. An aeroplane cruised about over 
the town rather low down, but we had become so 
familiar with the spectacle of flying machines that one 
hardly even associated it with the war, and certainly 
nobody would regard it as an ominous sign. Complete 
tranquility was the predominant note of the closing 
day, and there was nothing to warn us of the tragedy 
that was about to burst upon us. Yet only a few 
minutes journey away nearly a score of German 
aeroplanes of the most recent design and construction 
were racing towards Folkestone at top speed, laden 
with bombs ready to be hurled amongst the hapless 
populace. 

The first indication of the approach of the Huns 
was the sound of distant explosions, two, three, 
possibly four, minutes before the full blast of the 
attack. But, accustomed as we were then to the sound 
of gun practice, at first we were disinclined to pay any 
heed to the sounds. Probably it was only in the 
quieter parts of the borough that the distant 
detonations were heard at all. In point of fact, as we 
were soon to learn, they were the reports of bombs 
dropped a few miles to the west of the town. The 
sounds gradually came nearer, and in a few minutes 
there was a perfect furore of explosions. We were in 
the midst of the first great daylight raid. At first 
some of the inhabitants laboured under the impression 
that the town was being bombarded from the sea, but 
the unmistakable whirr of powerful aeroplanes, heard 
between the explosions as the machines were passing 
directly overhead, informed them that the attack 
came from the air. It was a racking, nerve-testing 



THE AIR RAIDS. 97 

experience. In the principal zones of devastation the 
horror of it all was enhanced by the cries and moans 
of the wounded, the noise of falling masonry, and the 
crash of broken glass as windows were rent into a 
million atoms. Sixty or more were killed instanta- 
neously, before they had time to realise what was 
happening ; others, less fortunate in a way, were 
injured beyond recovery, and many others maimed 
for life. 

A ghastly, horrible business of death and mutilation 
truly ! The sights which met the gaze of those who 
hastened to the grim task of removing the bodies and 
remains and succouring the wounded baffled description. 
Human trunks were cleft in two or more pieces, heads 
were blown from bodies, and there were fragments 
of bodies and limbs in whose case identification was 
more a matter of surmise than anything else. Yet, 
in spite of this heartrending holocaust, the military 
value of the raid was practically nil. One bomb hit 
the railway — this fell between the up and down lines 
at the Central Station — but it did not explode, and the 
damage was quickly repaired. Obviously the object 
of the German aviators was to wreck the railway and 
the Harbour, but in this they signally failed, although 
it must be admitted that their aim was far from being 
discreditable, bearing in mind the great height at 
which they flew. Many civilians were killed and a 
greater number injured, but from a military point of 
view the achievement was of insignificant, if any, 
value. 

The enemy aircraft had approached the town from 
the west in well-observed formation, the leader 
of the fleet being somewhat in advance by himself. 



98 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

Not a few people who happened to be out of doors 
gazed at the oncoming Gothas with keen, undisturbed 
interest, mentally remarking, ' ' What a fine spectacle ! " 
and failing to realise that they were enemy raiders 
until bombs dropped in the heart of the town startled 
them into an accurate appreciation of the deadly 
character of the aerial visitation. As the aeroplanes 
neared Folkestone they broke from their formation 
and spread out fanwise, some deviating so that their 
course lay over the golf links, their objective being 
probably the military encampment at the foot of 
Castle Hill (Caesar's Camp), others taking a line over 
the railway, and some diverging seawards, evidently 
in the hope that their bombs would strike the 
Harbour and perhaps sink some of the transports 
there. But the German crews, being at the great 
height of 14,000 feet or so, failed, with the slight 
exception already recorded, to hit their targets. 

The total number of bombs dropped in the borough, 
including those which fell into the sea not far from the 
beach, was fifty-one. Of these thirty-one exploded or 
partially exploded, fourteen which fell on land did not 
explode at all, and six dropped into the sea, some a 
short distance from the Victoria Pier. Others were 
dropped at Shorncliffe and Hythe, and yet others 
near the Railway further up the line. A fast train 
from London was on its way to Folkestone at the 
time, but the driver, sagaciously apprehending the 
danger of the situation, slowed down with the object 
of letting the aeroplanes get well in front. With 
regard to the bombs which were discharged in Folke- 
stone and the immediate district, a military expert 
in explosives who visited the town stated that only 



THE AIR RAIDS. 99 

a few fully exploded, including that which fell in 
Tontine Street and one which fell at Shorncliffe Camp. 
But some of the others "exploded sufficiently" to 
cause enough damage to life and property. One 
hardly likes to imagine what the total extent of the 
disaster would have been had all the bombs com- 
pletely exploded. 

From an examination of some of the missiles which 
did not explode at all it was obvious that the failure 
was due to bad workmanship. An interesting instance 
can be given. The construction of a bomb includes 
a contrivance which may be termed a safety device, 
which enables it to be handled without danger. At 
the tail end are fans which cause the bomb to revolve 
as it passes through the air, such revolution setting 
up a centrifugal force which opens, or should open, the 
safety device, whereby the percussion cap is brought 
into effective action. But in the case of at least one 
bomb this safety device did not open because an 
obstruction was caused by the head of a screw which 
had not been turned right home, and thus projected 
slightly above the surface. Time was when we heard 
a great deal of the splendid quality of German work- 
manship, but after seeing such an instance of 
' ' scamping ' ' one is inclined to think that a great deal 
of the laudation was unmerited. No doubt negligence 
in like or other details was the cause of other bombs 
not exploding or only partly exploding. 

With reference to the topographical incidence of 
the bombs, it is perhaps remarkable that it was not 
where the greater number fell that the greatest loss 
of life occurred. The area which received most attention 
was what may be called the Central Station area. 



100 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

Within a radius of 300 yards or 400 yards nearly 
twenty bombs were dropped — almost half of the 
total number which fell on land. But it was in Tontine 
Street where the toll of human life was greatest. 
Only one bomb fell there, but sixty-one men, women, 
and children lost their lives, and many others were 
more or less seriously injured. The other principal 
"death zone" was the lower part of Bouverie Road 
East. 

Dealing in detail first with the Central Station 
area, only one human life was lost in immediate 
proximity thereto. This victim was Mr. Edward 
Horn, butler to Sir Thomas Devitt, of Radnor Cliff, 
who was in the approach road on the down side when 
two cab horses, affrighted by explosions, started to 
run away down the declivity. Mr. Horn gallantly en- 
deavoured to stop one, when a bomb fell close to him, 
killing him and both horses. As already stated, one 
bomb fell on the railway track, but did not explode. 
Three fell in gardens at the rear of Nos. 14, 16, and 19, 
Kingsnorth Gardens, close to the railway embankment, 
but each one of these was a ' ' dud. ' ' One of them 
penetrated the ground to a depth of sixteen feet, 
"travelled" in a lateral direction another sixteen 
feet, and rose towards the surface a distance of ten 
feet before coming to a standstill ! A bomb which 
exploded fell in a garden at the back of a house in 
Cheriton Road (at a point opposite the south end of 
Julian Road), and three others came to earth close by, 
but failed to explode. On the other side of the railway 
three missiles fell in open ground some distance east 
of Marten Road. One of these exploded, causing 
two deaths. A bomb fell at the top end of Jointon 



THE AIR RAIDS. 101 

Road, just outside the entrance gates of Kimberley, 
the residence of Dr. W. J. Tyson, the explosion killing 
a pedestrian (a woman). One which fell in the lawn 
tennis ground of the Pleasure Gardens and another 
which found impact in Earls Avenue did not explode. 
A bomb which came down in the grounds in front of 
Grimston Gardens exploded, but that can hardly 
be regarded as being in the Central Station area. 
There was no loss of life in this instance, but windows 
were shattered on a wholesale scale, as indeed was the 
case in all neighbourhoods where bombs fell. As 
coming within the Station area may be mentioned 
those dropped, one near the top end of Radnor Park 
West ; another in the Park itself close to the road ; 
others in Wiltie Gardens (Nos. 2 and 4) ; Radnor Park 
Crescent (north end, west side) ; Bournemouth Gardens 
(east side, wrecking the front of Mr. F. E. Crosswell's 
house, No. 2) ; Boscombe Road (No. 18) ; and St. 
John's Church Road (No. 3). All these exploded or 
partially exploded, as also did one which fell on a 
piece of vacant land behind a hoarding at the corner 
of Radnor Park Road and Black Bull Road, the 
casualties including one fatality. 

Three others narrowly missed the railway embank- 
ment (south side) between the Viaduct and the Junction 
Station. One partly demolished No. 28, St. John 
Street (but inflicted no loss of life) and two fell in the 
meadow at the back of Grove Road, one killing a 
horse belonging to Mr. F. W. Pepper. Some missile 
burst over or near the goods shed at the Junction 
Station, causing much damage to glass and ceilings 
in the locality, but there was some doubt as to whether 
this was not a shell from an anti-aircraft gun in the 
Dover district. 



102 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

In the Bouverie Road East area, in addition to 
a bomb which hit the pavement in front of No. 21 
(killing the occupier, Mr. J. Burke, and other people), 
one fell in the grounds of the County School for Girls, 
another in a garden of No. 1 (south side), Mill Field, 
and another in the garden of No. 19 (north side). 
Bouverie Square, all there exploding. A bomb also 
came down in Bouverie Road East, opposite Christ 
Church Schools, but happily this did not explode. 
Similar failure attended one which fell on a furniture 
store at the rear of premises in the lower part of 
Rendezvous Street (east side). 

One bomb wrecked No. 21, Manor Road, killing a 
cook who was in the basement. Not many yards 
away, a bomb fell in the back garden of No. 22) the 
residence of Dr. Percy Lewis), on the other side of 
Manor Road. At any rate in more than one official 
record this missile is described as a bomb, but 
another account is that it was an anti-aircraft shell, 
which burst on the roof of a back wing and crashed 
into the room beneath, smashing all the windows and 
lamps and severely damaging a piano and carved 
chest. A chair, which had only just been vacated by 
Mrs. Percy Lewis, was completely destroyed, but a 
large billiard table in the middle of the room was 
untouched. Eventually the " shell " was found in a 
room below, the windows and furniture of which 
room were also badly smashed. A bomb in the same 
district fell through the roof of the Osborne Hotel (at 
the corner of Christ Church Road and Bouverie Road 
West), penetrating to the lower part of the building, 
where it exploded, wrecking the greater part of the 
interior, but causing no loss of life. Most of the 
occupants had previously run outside. 



THE AIR RAIDS. 103 

"Straggling" bombs fell: one just inside the 
municipal boundary, in the grounds of Enbrook, at the 
corner of Military Road and High Street, Sandgate; 
one in the grounds of a school on the west side of 
Coolinge Lane ; one in Turketel Road (on the West 
Cliff Estate) ; two on the golf links ; one in a field 
near the links, but on the west side of Hill Road; 
another in open ground, south-east of the Sanatorium, 
on the East Cliff ; and yet another near the western 
end of the Warren. 

As already stated, Tontine Street was the scene of 
the greatest loss of life, the result of a single bomb 
falling on the pavement in front of the spacious green- 
grocery stores of Messrs. Stokes Bros. (Nos. 51a, 
51b, 51c), In an instant a spectacle of life and bustle 
was changed into an appalling scene of carnage and 
destruction. In this part of the town the early part 
of Friday evening is a favourite time for shopping. 
To many inhabitants it is a convenient opportunity 
for replenishing the household larder for the ensuing 
week, as likewise it is to some people in the adjoining 
country districts. Consequently, when the Gothas 
passed over the borough this thoroughfare, especially 
at this point, was thronged with people, mainly 
women and children, amongst whom was hurled from 
the skies this death-laden missile. The bomb exploded 
with tremendous force, killing nearly sixty people 
instantaneously, injuring others so grievously that 
they died the same night or the next day, and wounding 
more or less seriously nearly a hundred more. In a 
moment the street was filled with dead and dying, 
some torn limb from limb, intermingled with human 
bodies being the lifeless and mangled carcases of 



104 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

horses, which added to the horror and ghastliness of 
the scene. Near the centre of this zone of slaughter 
was Police Constable Whittaker, who, wonderful to 
relate, was left standing unhurt, with the dead and 
maimed strewn all around him. At the inquest, in 
describing the spectacle which he saw on visiting 
Tontine Street immediately after the raid, Mr. Harry 
Reeve (the Chief Constable) said it was an appalling 
sight which he would never forget to his dying day. 

The premises of Messrs. Stokes Bros, were 
completely wrecked, the materials of which the 
structure was composed, fittings, and stock being 
reduced to a state of chaos difficult to imagine. Mr. 
W. H. Stokes, one of the partners, was killed, dying 
just as the rescuing party reached him, most of the 
staff of women and girls meeting with a similar fate. 
William Edmond Stokes, the fourteen-year-old son of 
Mr. W. H. Stokes, was amongst those fatally injured. 
The shop front of Mr. J. A. Waite, confectioner, of 
No. 51, was destroyed, Mr. Waite himself sustaining 
a rather severe wound in the head, which was struck 
by some flying fragment, and the Brewery Tap (No. 
53), kept by Mr. Albert Taylor, was also extensively 
damaged. No. 53 was not badly damaged, but the 
proprietor, Councillor John Jones, was injured in the 
leg. 

Great havoc was also wrought on the opposite side 
of the road, the drapery emporium of Messrs. 
Gosnold Bros., at Nos. 56, 58, and 60, Tontine Street, 
bearing the brunt. The front of the premises was 
destroyed, and some people sheltering there were 
killed. None of the employees was killed, but Mr. 
George Gosnold was injured. Mr. William Henry 




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THE AIR RAIDS. 105 

Hall, pork butcher, of No. 68, was badly injured, and 
died on the following Sunday. His premises suffered 
severely, as also did those of Mr. W. J. Franks, 
decorator and plumber (No. 62), the Premium Trading 
Stamp Co. (No. 64), Mr. H. R. Springate, newsagent 
(No. 66), and Mr. John P. Marsh, draper (Nos. 70 and 
72). Various other shops suffered in a lesser degree, 
the area of the damage in Tontine Street extending 
approximately from No. 35, Mr. Henry Warren's fruit 
shop, to the Congregational Church. 

An eighteen-inch gas main under the pavement in 
front of Messrs. Stokes' establishment was broken, 
and the gas ignited by the flame from the explosion. 
Some of the woodwork of the wrecked premises caught 
alight, but the Fire Brigade, which was quickly in 
attendance, soon put out the fire. Mr. H. O. Jones, 
the Chief Officer of the Brigade, left the jet from the 
main burning for a time, there being a more urgent 
call for the services of himself and his men in 
succouring wounded and removing the dead. Subse- 
quently the gas flame was put out by smothering it 
with a load of sand. This was the only outbreak of 
fire during the raid. 

The lower part of Bouverie Road East, where it 
runs past Alexandra Gardens, was also a scene of 
havoc, although the toll of life was small compared 
with that in Tontine Street. A bomb fell on the pave- 
ment in front of No. 21, Bouverie Road East, a shop 
tenanted by Mr. John Burke, a boot and shoe repairer. 
The shop and the adjoining premises (No. 19), used as 
a cafe, were "wiped out." Mr. Burke was in his 
little establishment at the time. The force of the 
explosion literally "picked him up" and flung him 



106 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

across the road against the railings of the County 
School for Girls, killing him instantly. The adjacent 
building at the corner of Alexandra Gardens, one of 
several stories, let out in flats, was almost completely 
wrecked. Some of the pavement was blown into the 
basement, and floors and dividing walls collapsed into 
a mass of ruin, in which furniture, masonry, and wood- 
work were jumbled pell-mell together in chaotic and 
indescribable fashion. It was not recorded that any 
fatality occurred in this building, but Kathleen 
Chapman, a girl employed as housemaid at Bates' 
Hotel, Sandgate Road, who was walking along Alex- 
andra Gardens to fetch a pair of shoes belonging to 
a friend from Mr. Burke's shop, was struck by some 
substance when about fifty yards from Bouverie 
Road East, and mortally wounded. Two soldiers 
who were with her, George Henry Bloodworth and 
another, were also killed. 

Another bomb fell in the road a little further down, 
in front of the premises (No. n) of Messrs. Durban 
Bros., butchers. Mr. Wilfred Durban and several 
others were in the shop, but, although the front of 
the premises was shattered, those inside escaped with 
injuries or shock. Mr. Durban himself was thrown 
behind his safe. The County School for Girls, Christ 
Church Schools, the building at the corner (east side) 
of Alexandra Gardens, then used as a Belgian School, 
and other premises in the neighbourhood, including 
some in Alexandra Gardens and Cheriton Road, also 
sustained damage. 

At the time of the raid the only people indoors at 
West Lodge, No. 21, Manor Road (the residence of 
Mrs. Callaghan), were Jane Marchment, a cook* and 



THE AIR RAIDS. 107 

another servant. The latter ran out of the house 
just before it was struck by the bomb and in 
greater part collapsed. As already stated, the cook, 
who was in the basement, was killed. Her body was 
not recovered until nearly 24 hours later. Men of the 
Fire Brigade and others worked for three hours on 
Friday night in the search, at the end of which time it 
was felt that no living soul could be amongst the 
wreckage. On the following day the search was 
resumed and continued until five, when the body was 
found beneath the ruins of the staircase and other 
parts of the house. Her feet had been cut clean off. 
Apparently she had been endeavouring to make her 
exit from the house when she was overwhelmed by an 
avalanche of debris. • 

To continue the narrative of the incidence of the 
bombs so far as they were accompanied by fatal 
effects, mention should be made of the deaths of Mrs. 
Maggie Grey Bartleet (the wife of Sergeant-Major 
J. J. Bartleet, R.A.M.C), who was killed in Jointon 
Road ; of Mr. Albert Edward Castle, a naval pensioner 
and gardener, who was hit whilst in the grounds of 
the Grange School, Shorncliffe Road ; of Doris Eileen 
Spencer Walton (a pupil at The Mount, Julian Road), 
who was playing tennis on a lawn at Athelstan Ladies' 
School, Shorncliffe Road, when she was struck by a 
fragment which was hurled through the air by the 
explosion of a bomb which fell some distance away ; 
and of Mr. George Edward Butcher, a coal carter, who 
succumbed on June 6th to injuries received whilst 
standing near the Castle Inn, Foord Road. Reference 
has already been made to the fatality at the Central 
Station. 



108 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

It is impossible to chronicle all the remarkable 
incidents and narrow escapes during the raid. But men- 
tion must be made of the extraordinary occurrence 
at No. 28, St. John Street, the residence of Mr. Stephen 
Chittenden, a member of the Folkestone Fire Brigade. 
At the time he was on duty at the Head Station in 
Dover Road, which is close to St. John Street. When 
the bombs commenced to fall on the town Mr. H. O. 
Jones, the Chief Officer of the Brigade, was in Sandgate 
Road. He at once proceeded to the nearest available 
telephone, rang up the Head Fire Station, and asked 
if there were any calls to fires. Fireman Stephen 
Chittenden replied that there was only one — from 
Tontine Street. Just then there was another explosion, 
and the fireman exclaimed : ' ' My God, I believe that 
is at my house ! ' ' And it was ! The bomb exploded 
on the roof of 28, St. John Street, the top floor being 
blown away. In a room on the floor immediately 
underneath were two women and a child — an elderly 
woman (bedridden), her daughter-in-law, and a 
grand-daughter. Their escape from death was almost 
miraculous. One part of the ceiling and floor above 
them fell into their room, but it swung down slantwise 
as it might have done had the other side being fixed 
on hinges ; consequently the other part remained 
suspended above them. The old lady had a leg 
broken, and the child sustained an injury to the hip. 
The occupants were rescued from the wrecked premises 
by the Fire Brigade. 

Very remarkable, too, was the case of the Osborne 
Hotel in Bouverie Road West. The bomb fell through 
all the floors to the basement, where it exploded. 
The roof of the building was broken in, all the floors 



THE AIR RAIDS. 109 

suffered, and the basement rooms became an entangle- 
ment of debris and broken furniture. Yet nobody 
was seriously injured. 

The dials of the clocks of Tontine Street Congre- 
gational Church and Radnor Park Congregational 
Church were both broken, and the works themselves 
put ' ' out of action. ' ' Christ Church was also 
damaged. The manner in which the shock from 
explosions found its way over house-tops and other 
obstructions, passed round corners, and shattered 
windows and caused other damage was not a little 
extraordinary. Tons of broken glass lay on the 
pavement in various parts of the town after the 
Gothas had passed over the borough. The effects 
of high explosives, fantastic as well as fatal, were a 
revelation. 

Connected with the raid were two things which 
perhaps should be recorded. One was the suggestion 
emanating from some imaginative mind that the 
aeroplane circling .about the town rather low down 
just before the Hun machines arrived was in reality 
a "spy machine" acting as a guide to the enemy. 
Once this brilliant idea was mooted it spread with 
amazing rapidity, not a few giving credence to it. 
As a matter of fact it was a "trakiing bus" of the 
Royal Flying Corps. 

Another impression was that the Hun aircraft 
included a Zeppelin. Many people emphatically 
asserted that they saw a Zeppelin, and remained 
unconvinced that they were wrong even after the 
announcement in the official report that the raiding 
craft were aeroplanes. The erroneous notion was 
due probably to the expansive wing spread of the 



110 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

machines and the effect of the sun shining on them. 

It is impossible to place on record here all the 
examples of courage and self-control, but brief mention 
may be made of one. At Kent College, in Grimston 
Avenue, a Girl Guides' service was being conducted 
by the Rev. J. Edward Harlow, when a terrific explosion 
took place, followed by others. The service, however, 
was completed as arranged. Subsequently Mr. 
Harlow wrote to The Times a letter in which he stated 
that as long as life lasted he would remember with 
admiration and pride "the perfect self-control and 
cheerfulness of those eighty daughters of England, 
some of whose homes were far away. Their behaviour 
was superb." This communication drew from General 
Sir Robert Baden Powell an appreciative letter 
addressed to Mr. Harlow and another of congratu- 
lation to the Folkestone Girl Guides. 

Before the tense period of the raid was at an end 
the members of the various organisations charged 
with the duty of dealing with such an emergency 
were hurrying to the various scenes of carnage and 
destruction. In addition to the local Ambulance 
Corps and the Fire Brigade, the Red Cross contingents, 
the Canadian Army Medical Corps, the regular Police, 
and the Special Constables were swiftly in attendance 
to take part in the work of removing the dead and 
conveying the injured to hospitals. It was a grim 
and melancholy task, but it was efficiently and 
expeditiously carried out. The lifeless bodies and 
remains were conveyed to the Cemetery mortuary and 
the Royal Victoria Hospital mortuary. The injured 
were taken to the Royal Victoria Hospital and to 
the West Cliff Hospital, until the accommodation 



THE AIR RAIDS. Ill 

became overtaxed, and then recourse was had to 
the Hospitals at Shorncliffe. Medical and nursing 
staffs worked devotedly throughout the night in 
dressing the wounds of the injured and tending to their 
various needs. 

But perhaps the saddest and most distressing 
scenes were those witnessed at the mortuaries in the 
process of identification of the bodies by bereaved 
relatives. In some cases there were only detached and 
mangled remains to identify. Many relatives had 
only become aware of their losses by the non-return 
of some of their household. No attempt can be made 
to describe the mingled feelings of fear and hope with 
which they viewed the array of corpses. In one or two 
instances the raid had reduced a family of three or 
four to a single survivor. In the work of laying out 
the bodies and remnants the Coroner's Officer (Mr. E. 
J. Chadwick) worked assiduously and untiringly, and 
tactfully rendered much assistance to the bereaved 
ones. 

The total number of people killed in Folkestone, 
including three whose deaths occurred in the course 
of the next week or two, was 71 — 16 men, 28 women, 
and 27 children. No fewer than 61 of these resulted 
from the explosion of the bomb which fell in Tontine 
Street. 

A list of those injured compiled at the time by the 
authorities contained 96 names — 34 men, 50 women, 
6 boys, and 6 girls — but there were others who did 
not report their cases to the authorities. 

If there be added to the number killed in Folkestone 
the three fatalities at Cheriton and two at Hythe, 



112 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

the total for the district is 76 (this being exclusive of 
the soldiers killed at Shorncliffe). 

Nineteen bombs were dropped at Lympne (where 
there is an aerodrome), 19 at Hythe, 2 at Sandgate, 
16 at Cheriton, and 18 on St. Martin's Plain and 
Dibgate, Shorncliffe. On St. Martin's Plain four 
soldiers were pitching a tent ; a bomb made a direct 
hit, and the remains of the men had subsequently 
to be gathered up in bags. Two huts were demo- 
lished, the inmates being killed. One bomb fell near 
the Shorncliffe Military Hospital, but failed to 
explode. A lady stenographer in the open was killed. 

The casualties amongst the soldiers at Shorncliffe 
were 18 killed (16 of these being Canadians) and 90 
wounded (86 being Canadians). 

As previously remarked, it was the worst air raid 
on this counry up to this stage of the war, so far as 
the number killed was concerned. None of the 
Zeppelin raids had caused so many deaths. In the 
official return, published after the signing of the 
Armistice, it was set forth that in the raid on May 25th, 
1917, on Kent and Folkestone, 77 civilians were 
killed and 94 injured, whilst 18 soldiers were killed 
and 98 injured (these latter figures nearly all relating 
to casualties at Shorncliffe). 

During the whole war there was only one other raid 
in which the casualty list was heavier than in that 
which plunged Folkestone into mourning on May 25th, 
1917. The other raid referred to was that of June 
13th, 1917, when German aeroplanes dropped bombs 
on Margate, Essex, and London, the casualties number- 
ing : Civilians — killed 158, injured 425 ; sailors and 
soldiers — killed 42, injured 7. 



THE AIR RAIDS. 113 

Several other towns on the coast of Kent suffered 
from aerial invasion on numerous occasions, but in 
the case of none of them were the casualties so many, 
even all told, as at Folkestone on May 25th, 1917. 
To take the experience of Dover, that town was 
bombarded from the air on 18 occasions, yet the total 
loss of life was only 13 men, 7 women, and 2 children, 
the numbers injured being 35 men, 22 women, and 9 
children. The number of bombs which fell on Dover 
was 185. 

Mr. Daniel Stringer Lyth, verger at Hythe Parish 
Church, was one of the victims. The circumstances 
were recounted in the Folkestone Coroner's Court, 
Mr. Lyth having died in hospital in Folkestone. 
The Vicar (the Rev. H. D. Dale) and his wife had 
been engaged with the verger in the vestry ; hearing 
explosions, they went out into the churchyard, where 
a bomb fell, breaking tombstones and scattering 
shrapnel and debris in all directions. Mr. Lyth was 
hit on the leg by shrapnel, sustaining a mortal wound. 
Mrs. Dale was slightly injured in the face. The Vicar 
himself had a remarkable escape. He was struck on 
the side, and on putting his hand in his coat pocket 
he found there a piece of shrapnel, which had lodged 
against a tin box that he was carrying. 

The following communique was issued by the Field 
Marshal Commanding-in-Chief, Home Forces, at 
12.45 p.m. on Saturday, May 26th : — 

"A large squadron of enemy aircraft, about 16 

in number, attacked the south-east of England 

between 5.15 and 6.30 p.m. last night. 

"Bombs were dropped at a number of places, 

but nearly all the damage occurred in one town, 



114 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

where some of the bombs fell into the streets, causing 
considerable casualties among the civil popula- 
tion." 

"Some shops and houses were also seriously 
damaged. 

' ' The total casualties reported by the police from 
all districts are : 

"Killed, 76; injured, 174. 

"Of the killed, 27 were women and 23 children, 
while 43 women and 19 children were injured. 

"Aeroplanes of the Royal Flying Corps went up 
in pursuit, and the raiding aircraft were engaged by 
fighting squadrons of the R.N.A.S. from Dunkirk 
on their return journey. 

"The Admiralty report that three of the enemy 
aeroplanes were shot down by the latter. ' ' 
The following announcement by the Secretary of 
the Admiralty was issued at 1.10 p.m. on Saturday, 
May 26th : — 

"Naval aeroplanes carried out an attack on the 
aerodrome at St. Denis Westram, near Bruges, 
yesterday morning. Many bombs were dropped. 

' ' In the evening several enemy aircraft, returning 
from a raid on England, were engaged oversea by 
R.N.A.S. machines. An encounter took place 
between one British and three hostile aeroplanes 
in mid-channel, and one of the latter was destroyed. 

' ' Several encounters also took place off the Belgian 
coast, in which two large twin-engined hostile 
machines were shot down. 

' ' All our machines returned safely. ' ' 
The report of German Main Headquarters, issued in 
Berlin on Saturday, May 26, contained the following : — 



THE AIR RAIDS. 115 

"During the course of a successful raid one of 

our air squadrons dropped bombs on Dover and 

Folkestone, on the south coast of England. Long 

distance flights inland also gave good results. ' ' 

It will be seen from the foregoing official reports 

that it was the Germans who first mentioned the name 

of Folkestone. For three days the authorities in 

London refused to allow the English papers to specify 

the exact town, the censorship being relaxed in time 

for the dailies published on Tuesday morning to 

announce that it was at Folkestone where the loss of 

life had been so great. 

So far this narrative has dealt only with the attack. 
The reason is the all-sufficient one that there was 
nothing else to record until the actual raid was 
almost at an end. The explosions of the bombs 
had almost, if not entirely, ceased before the anti- 
aircraft guns upon the hills on the east side of the 
town came into action. Possibly until then the 
enemy planes could not be seen by or were out of range 
of the batteries. In any case no hits were registered 
by the "Archies," and the aerial invaders passed 
from our shores scathless, although they were sub- 
sequently engaged over the sea by English fighting 
machines which went up from Dunkirk and the neigh- 
bourhood to intercept them, and which brought 
down three of their number. But how was it that 
the Huns had not been attacked by British aviators 
when they were travelling towards Folkestone ? 
It was an amazing thing ! The enemy did not approach 
Folkestone from the sea, but from inland. It sub- 
sequently transpired that the Hun machines had passed 



Il6 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

over North Kent into Mid Kent — they were heard, 
but not seen, at Maidstone — until apparently they 
reached the main railway line from London to 
Folkestone, which latter town they passed over without 
let or hindrance. The inhabitants who watched their 
flight over Folkestone looked in vain for English 
aeroplanes hastening to the attack. Why was it ? 
Had someone blundered ? 

Naturally enough questions were raised at the 
inquests following the raid. There was the same note 
of interrogation at the special meeting of the Town 
Council held on the following day, and later the matter 
was the subject of queries in Parliament. Certain 
explanations and statements followed, and possibly 
there were official enquiries behind closed doors, but 
the matter was never wholly cleared up, or if it were, 
the authorities did not see fit to take the public into 
their confidence. A "high official" was reported by 
a London newspaper to have stated that "it was 
known that the fleet of aeroplanes was about. They 
were reported at various places, but as it happened 
they came over that town (Folkestone) at a great 
height above a screen of clouds. The moment they 
reached the edge of the clouds they had Folkestone 
directly under them. That accounts for the populace 
being so tragically taken unawares. It is certain 
that hereafter an entirely new and thorough system 
of notification will be introduced" — which is tanta- 
mount to saying that there was something lacking 
or unsatisfactory about the system in existence up 
to that time. 

The inquests were opened by the Borough Coroner 
(Mr. G. W. Haines) on the evening following the raid. 



THE AIR RAIDS. 117 

Before the jurors viewed the bodies the Coroner said 
it was a task that would try the nerves of the stongest 
of them, but it was a painful duty that was cast upon 
them. After the visit to the mortuaries the inquest 
was adjourned till the following Tuesday. Mr. Arden 
Blake was foreman of the jury. The first inquest 
was upon the body of Mrs. Florence Louise Norris, 
wife of Alfred Norris, of 30, Blackbull Road, who also 
lost his daughter (aged 2 years) and his baby son 
(10 months), only the father of the family circle of 
four remaining. The verdict was "Death by bombs 
from hostile aircraft, Great Britain being in a state 
of war, and deceased at the time being a non- 
combatant," the jury adding a rider to the effect 
that they regretted that the competent authorities did 
not give notice of the approach of the aircraft, and 
that they were strongly of opinion that in future the 
town should be warned by a siren or other such device. 
[The Chief Constable (Mr. H. Reeve) had stated 
during the hearing that as a rule he received a warning 
from the military authorities when there was an 
air raid, but on this occason he received no warning 
at all, and knew nothing about it until the enemy 
aircraft were over the town.] 

A similar verdict was returned in other cases, the 
court eventually being adjourned till Thursday, 
when the remaining cases were taken. At the close 
the jury proposed to add two riders, as follows : — 

' ' (a) The jury condemn in the strongest 
possible manner the negligence of the local and 
military authorities in not having made arrange- 
ments whereby the public could have been 
warned. ' ' 



Il8 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

" {b) The jury are agreed as to the necessity 
of removing from our midst all enemy aliens of 
both sexes, and call upon the local authorities to 
do all they can to have them removed at once. ' ' 

The Coroner asked to whom the first rider should be 
sent, remarking that it was no use blaming the local 
authorities, at any rate, as, however many warning 
signals they might have had in the town, they would 
have been of no use on the previous Friday, when no 
warning was received in the town till the aeroplanes 
were overhead. 

The second rider was withdrawn, the Coroner 
observing that there was no evidence to connect any 
alien in the neighbourhood with that inquiry. 

At the special meeting of the Town Council following 
the raid the aliens question was alluded to, and it 
was proposed by Councillor R. Forsyth, and seconded 
by Councillor W. J. King-Turner, that a deputation 
should wait upon the Home Secretary and ask that in 
the interests of the town all aliens of enemy origin 
should be removed from the district and their 
businesses closed down. It was moved, however, as 
an amendment, by Councillor C. Edward Mumford, 
that the Home Office be asked to strengthen the 
Secret Service in the town, this being seconded by 
Alderman E. J. Bishop and carried by nine votes 
to seven. Councillor R. G. Wood proposed a motion 
expressing the Council's profound disappointment 
that the town and district were not efficiently 
defended from the German aerial attack, and the 
hope that every effort would be made by the military 
authorities to give the town better protection. This 
was seconded by Councillor W. J. Harrison and carried, 



THE AIR RAIDS. H9 

and on the following Wednesday a deputation from 
Folkestone and district had an interview with Field- 
Marshal Lord French, Commander-in-Chief of the Home 
Forces, on the subject of defence against attacks from 
the air. Lord French, in reply, said that such 
experience as they had showed that it was not possible 
absolutely to prevent attacks by aeroplane, but that 
the scheme of defence had been very carefully 
considered in the past and had been reconsidered in 
the light of the experience gained in the recent raid. 
Even if it were not possible to prevent their coming, 
he hoped that the measures which had been taken 
would make any future raid a very risky operation, 
and would ensure heavy loss to the enemy. 

Following the raid, special services were held at the 
various local churches, chief amongst them being a 
very impressive and solemn memorial service at the 
Parish Church on Saturday, June 2nd, at which the 
Marquess Camden (Lord Lieutenant of Kent) was 
present as the Representative of the King. The 
Mayor and Corporation attended, being accompanied 
by the Borough Member (Sir Philip Sassoon), the 
Recorder (Mr. J. C. Lewis Coward), and many represen- 
tative men, including nearly all the local Free Church 
Ministers. The Archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. 
Randall Davidson) gave an address, and, in addition 
to the Vicar (Canon P. F. Tindall), the former Vicar 
(Canon Erskine W. Knollys), the Rev. L. G. Grey 
( Vicar of Christ Church), Canon C. Evelyn Gardiner 
(Vicar of Holy Trinity), and the Rev. C. H. Griffith 
(Vicar of St. Michael's) assisted in the service. 

Eminently suited to the occasion was the address of 
the Primate. In the course of an inspiring oration 



120 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

he remarked : We are in, yes, in, the great war. We 
are absolutely persuaded of the lightness, the 
inevitableness for men and women of honour, of what 
we did nearly three years ago, when duty and loyalty 
to truth compelled us to enter in it. Well, of course, 
we are not going to be simply flustered or frightened 
because in carrying our great cause through — through 
to victory — we are ourselves among those who 
personally suffer. We in this corner of England, on 
this Kentish coast, have the trust — would it be 
exaggeration to say the solemn privilege? — of being 
the bit of England nearest to the enemy. We are 
proud of our sons and brothers who held the foremost 
trench in action on the Somme, or in defence of Ypres, 
or were the first over the parapet. Someone — or 
rather some set of people — must be in the forefront. 
So far as English soil is concerned, the people to whom 
that special trust is given are we ourselves, we living 
here in Folkestone and Dover, and Deal and Ramsgate, 
and Canterbury. We mean to be worthy of it, 
and, please God, we will. Of course, we want to secure 
every reasonable protection that we can for those in 
our homes who cannot be combatants. But war 
brings peril — involves peril — and we are prepared to 
face the peril bravely, and with quietness, and thus by 
God's grace to give a wholesome lead to all who any- 
where are apt to be nervous or excited, or afraid — all 
who forget the assurance given at Patmos in a world 
of tempestuous strife : " He laid His right hand upon 
me, saying, Fear not, I am the first and the last, I 
am He that liveth and was dead, and behold I am alive 
for evermore. Amen. And I have the keys of death 
and of Hades. ' ' 



THE AIR RAIDS. 121 

Church and Nonconformist pastors united in a 
service held in Radnor Park on Sunday afternoon, 
June 3rd. There was a vast congregation numbering 
several thousand people. An appropriate address 
was delivered by the Rev. J. C. Carlile. 

In the days immediately following the raid the 
Mayor received many messages of sympathy, in- 
cluding telegrams from the King and Queen. A 
Relief Fund for the sufferers was opened, and speedily 
assumed substantial proportions. Folkestone quickly 
settled down to its usual diurnal routine. Early 
in the morning after the raid there were workmen 
engaged on the task of re-constructing Messrs. 
Stokes' Greengrocery Emporium, and the whole town 
' ' carried on. ' ' But there was a change in the local 
' ' atmosphere. ' ' 

"Comfort, content, delight, 

The ages slow-bought gain, 

They shrivelled in a night. ' ' 
Gone was our complacency ; gone was that feeling 
of security and immunity with which we had previously 
pursued the even tenour of our way. The war had 
been brought home to us with fierce intensity. There 
was no actual panic, but the populace was braced up 
to a tension which it had not known before, and it 
was only natural that there should be a desire that 
every reasonable precaution should be taken to 
prevent a repetition of the calamity. With a view 
to bringing pressure to bear upon the Government 
and the Military Authorities, meetings were held at 
the Hippodrome then existing in Linden Crescent. 
Local opinion was divided as to the desirability of 
this agitation, but I simply record the fact, and 



122 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

have no intention of entering here into a discussion 
of the pros and cons. Any way, before long more 
anti-aircraft guns and searchlights made their appear- 
ance in the neighbourhood, some being stationed in 
Cherry Garden Avenue, whilst later a machine gun 
was mounted on the roof of Avenue Mansions, Earl's 
Avenue. Fresh "Archies" were also installed at 
Westenhanger. Moreover, when, later in the summer, 
the sirens were sounded in the day-time the in- 
habitants were gladdened a few minutes after the 
signal by the spectacle of English fighting machines 
high up in the sky ready to give battle to any invaders. 
It should be placed on record, in reference to the 
question of defence against aerial attack, that before 
the agitation in Folkestone, on the day after the raid, 
in fact, Earl Radnor himself called at the War Office 
and obtained the assurance that more guns would 
be provided in the Folkestone district as soon as 
they were available. 

The question of installing the sirens alluded to 
received the attention of the local authorities without 
delay, and it was decided that there should be electric 
sirens at the Town Hall and the Head Fire Station 
in Dover Road, and steam sirens at the Public Baths, 
Foord Road, and the Electricity Works at Morehall. 
There was some divergence of view as to whether the 
alarm should be sounded during the day only or 
during the night as well. Some people held the opinion 
that if a raid occurred after most folk had retired to 
bed, it would be better not to arouse them, especially 
as in all probability they would be just as safe in 
bed as they would be anywhere else. It was, however, 
strongly argued that the sirens should be sounded at 



THE AIR RAIDS. 123 

whatever hour of the day or night the Authorities 
received a warning, and finally that view prevailed. 

The provision of dug-outs or shelters was another 
subject which engaged the attention of the Council, 
and eventually refuges were specially constructed 
at the top of Marshall Street, the rear of Mead Road, 
the sandpit north of Radnor Park, the basement 
of unfinished houses in Cheriton Road, Morehall, 
Mr. Scrivener's coal stores (under Radnor Bridge 
Arch), Darlington Arch, the old lime kiln at Killick's 
Corner, and a dug-out in the chalk hill on the north 
side of Dover Hill at Killick's Corner. The basement 
of the Town Hall, the Technical School, Sidney Street 
Schools, the Grammar School in Cheriton Road, the 
store under Mr. Reason's house, there being a concrete 
floor, and the new garage on The Bayle (used at that 
time as a military guard room), it having a concrete 
roof, were also open to the public after an alarm 
had been received. The Martello Tunnel, near the 
Junction Station, was also used as a shelter, the 
Railway Company running a train into it for the 
accommodation of those wishing to take cover there. 
At the time there were no trains running to or from 
Dover, owing to the line having been wrecked by the 
landslip at the end of 1915. The shelter under the 
Leas Parade (near the lift) was also available as a 
refuge. 

Later in the year the very existence of these so- 
called shelters caused the authorities a good deal 
of anxiety. When the air raids were ' ' in full blast ' ' 
the basement and Police Court at the Town Hall, 
for instance, were full night after night. Many 
people would wait near the Town Hall for the first 



124 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

note of the siren. But even those who were not 
experts in such matters thought that the Town Hall 
(like most other buildings used as shelters) was not 
bomb-proof, and that a direct hit on the building 
would result in a catastrophe involving terrible loss 
of life. Ultimately a military expert was consulted, 
and his opinion was a sweeping condemnation of the 
shelters. His view was that there was only one which 
was bomb-proof, viz., the dug-out in the chalk hill 
at Killick's Corner. 

The great raid on Folkestone and the increasing 
frequency of raids on South-East England by aeroplanes 
had a serious effect upon the material prosperity of 
the town. Many residents who had no local business 
ties left the district for safer parts of the country, 
as likewise did nearly every private school in the 
town. There was also a decrease in the number of 
visitors. Everybody was by this time fully convinced 
that there was a war on. Still, Folkestone was 
never reduced to the straits experienced by the East 
Coast resorts. 

The raid of May 25th proved to be the only daylight 
raid on our town. Other parts of Kent, London, 
Essex, and Suffolk were attacked by Hun aviators 
in the day time during the summer, but not Folkestone, 
and the inhabitants, or the majority, at any rate, 
became less concerned as to the possibility of another 
daylight raid. The moonlight raids did not commence 
till the end of the summer. On one occasion, on the 
morning of August 22nd, a great sensation was created 
in the town by the spectacle of an aerial battle three 
or four miles to the east of Folkestone. The Germans 
were bombing Dover, and at one time there was a 



THE AIR RAIDS. 125 

prospect that we should also be visited, but the gunners 
on the hill were putting up a barrage, and British 
airmen were engaging the invaders. A thrilling 
sight was presented by the manoeuvres of thirty or 
more aeroplanes far up in the sky, and the conflict 
was watched with keen interest, if not with some feeling 
of apprehension, by thousands of residents and visitors, 
who eventually had the satisfaction of seeing the 
German aeroplanes wheel about and turn tail, followed 
by their British antagonists. The invaders had been 
driven off. An official record states that 21 hostile 
aeroplanes passed over Capel aerodrome. On the day 
on which this raid occurred the funeral of Councillor 
S. W. Joseph, who had been killed in the tramway 
smash at Dover, took place. At the time the battle 
in the air was in progress the Mayor of Folkestone 
and a number of his colleagues were journeying to 
Dover by motors to attend the last sad rites. They 
almost ran into the raid, and arrived at Dover as 
the dead and wounded were being removed. 

During the summer of 191 7 a score or more of 
alarms were received, but nothing eventful happened 
at Folkestone. As the summer waned, however, 
there were indications that the Germans would rely 
more upon nocturnal visitations, and the latter part 
of September found us in the full experience of the 
moonlight series. There were periods when the sirens 
gave forth their shrill note several nights in succession, 
and sometimes twice in a night. The warning was 
proclaimed by ten short blasts, and the -'All clear " by 
one long blast. All traffic in the streets was stopped 
as soon as a warning was received, and those who 



126 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

happened to be some distance from their homes some- 
times found themselves obliged to undertake a long 
walk. As already stated, there were various so-called 
shelters, but the authorities eventually appealed to 
the townspeople to remain in their homes. Some 
listened to and acted upon this sound advice, but 
others did not, and many children were taken to the 
refuges night after night, with the result that on the 
following day they were so drowsy during school 
hours that they were unable to attend to their lessons. 
Fires and seats were provided at some of the shelters,, 
and in some cases refreshments. 

Happily Folkestone was only bombed again once, 
and then the missiles fell right outside the town. 
This was on September 25th, when the warning was 
sounded at 7. 11 p.m. and the "All clear" at 10.30 
p.m. During the period between those times there 
was a great deal of firing from the anti-aircraft batteries, 
and between the shrieks of the shells heavier explosions 
were heard. These proceeded from bombs which 
were dropped, two on Castle Hill (commonly known 
as Caesar's Camp) and three in the grounds of 
the Waterworks adjoining, no real damage being 
done. One fell into the reservoir, killing some small 
fish. On the following day Mr. James Waite, the 
Secretary of the Waterworks Company, took the 
precaution of having a sample of the water analysed, 
but no trace of anything deleterious was found. A few 
bombs were dropped at Swingfield on this occasion, 
but there were no casualties. 

But if, save for the instance just recorded, we were 
not bombed, there was ' ' liveliness ' ' enough and to 
spare. The reports of the guns — in addition to those 



THE AIR RAIDS. 127 

stationed on land, there were those on the patrol 
boats in the Channel, which put up a tremen- 
dous barrage calculated to command the respect of 
the bravest of the Hun airmen — the shriek of the 
shells, the explosion of the same at the end of their 
journey through space, the glare of the searchlights, 
the Verey lights, with sometimes the staccato of 
machine gun fire, combined to make the nights lurid 
enough in all conscience. They were indeed nights 
of stress and tension. "The pale-faced moon looked 
bloody on the earth. ' ' Some of the anti-aircraft guns 
were brought into the heart of the town on motors 
and fired from the streets as opportunity offered. 
The reason generally of all this commotion was that 
many of the Gothas, after discharging their cargo of 
bombs on London or some other place, returned over 
Folkestone. Apparently they ' ' picked up ' ' the main 
railway line, and followed its course till they neared 
or reached Folkestone, when they turned out to sea, 
where the lightships then stationed not far from the 
Harbour helped them in shaping their course. 

Hostile aircraft passed over the town on September 
29th,-30th, 1917 (one believed to have been hit) ; 
September 30th (one believed to have been hit) ; 
October 19th (one or more Zeppelins : this was the 
occasion on which several Zeppelins were blown or 
"forced" out of their proper course and came down 
in France) ; October 31st -November 1st (one machine, 
thought to have been ' ' winged, ' ' was very low down, 
so that it could clearly be seen) ; December 6th (three 
hostile aircraft passed over to the north of the town, 
from west to east, between 5 a.m. and 6.15 a.m.) ; 
December 18th. 



128 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

On the last-named date several enemy machines 
returned via Folkestone between 8 p.m. and 9.15 p.m. 
One Gotha was hit in the petrol tank by the guns at 
Westenhanger. Its commander decided to make a 
dash for "the other side," but found it impossible to 
cross the Channel. The machine came down into the 
sea about three miles from the Harbour Pier, five 
white Verey lights and one green light being sent up, 
in response to which signals H.M.A.T. "Highlander" 
hastened to the rescue. The crew of the aeroplane 
were three in number. An ober-lieutenant and a 
first-class air mechanic were taken on board the 
trawler, but the other man (the pilot) was entangled 
in the gear of the machine, and died or was drowned. 
The Gotha itself was destroyed by a time-fused bomb 
(this must have been ignited by one of the Germans 
who had sent up signals of distress), which exploded 
just as the crew of the trawler were preparing to 
bring it aboard. The mate of the vessel, Mr. Frank 
William Henry Gee, aged 47, was so seriously injured 
that he died on the following night. The two prisoners 
were landed at Folkestone Harbour, and on the follow- 
ing morning were sent to London under escort. 
En route the ober-lieutenant told the corporal of the 
guard that it was his third journey over to England, 
and that he came from Belgium. Subsequently 
various articles, which the crew of the " Highlander " 
took into port, were returned to one of the Germans, 
the original owner, it being stated in the official 
correspondence on the subject that "the articles were 
not a free gift, but given by one of the prisoners to 
the crew to propitiate them, the prisoners imagining 
that they would be badly treated." It should be 



THE AIR RAIDS. 129 

added that the explosion by which the aeroplane was 
blown to pieces caused much speculation and some 
consternation in the town, coming, as it did, after the 
' ' All clear ' ' had been sounded. 

According to an official communication reports from 
reliable sources indicated that the Gotha was hit by 
the guns at Westenhanger, but the gunners at Cherry 
Garden Avenue also claimed a hit. 

Coming to 1918, in this year twenty warnings were 
received, the last being on August 24th, at 11.35 P m - 
Enemy aircraft passed over the town on January 29th, 
February 16th (one apparently hit), February i7-i8th, 
and May i9-20th (Whit Sunday, this being the last 
occasion on which enemy aeroplanes travelled over 
Folkestone). In the early part of 191 8 the two guns 
which had been stationed at Cherry Garden Avenue, 
mounted on lorries, were replaced by one heavier gun, 
fixed in position on the ground. The first time it was 
in action it scored a hit, but before it fired its 20th 
shot it was disabled owing to the recoil spring 
breaking. 

According to the records of the Fire Brigade, the 
numbers of air raid alarms received were : 1915, 1 ; 
1916, 29 ; 1917, 52 ; 1918, 20. Total 102. In many 
instances there were no local developments following 
the siren's warning note, and the community would 
have been spared much unnecessary anxiety had no 
alarm been issued to the public, as was the case prior 
to May 25th, 1917. In some cases there were raids on 
more or less distant parts of England, but often there 
was no official report to tell us what, if anything, had 
happened, and frequently it was some town on the 
French coast which was the objective of the Huns. 



130 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

On some occasions we in Folkestone heard the anti- 
aircraft guns at Dover and on the hills almost as soon 
as the shrill notes of the sirens had died away. On 
others there would be utter silence for a couple of 
hours ; then one or more German aeroplanes would 
approach from inland on the return journey to Belgium 
or North Western France. Two alarms in one day 
were not a rare occurrence. For instance, on Septem- 
ber 29th, 1917, there was a raid alarm period from 
6.5 p.m. to 6.45 p.m., and another from 7.45 p.m. to 
1 a.m. Sometimes we had to stay up nearly all night 
if we preferred not to retire till the ' ' All clear ' ' was 
sounded. For example, on October 31st, 1917, the 
alarm was sounded at 10.40 p.m., and the "All clear" 
did not "go" till 3.15 a.m. Before long the truth of 
the old saying, "Familiarity breeds contempt," began 
to assert itself. The inhabitants, or many of them, 
ceased to resort to dug-outs and shelters, even dis- 
daining to descend to the basements of their houses. 
If they were in bed they remained there, being by 
this time convinced that they were as safe there as 
anywhere else. 

Throughout the air raid period the Fire Brigade 
held itself in special readiness to deal with any out- 
breaks of fire, there being four posts, viz., the Head 
Fire Station in Dover Road, the West End Sub-Station 
(adjoining the Pleasure Gardens Theatre), the Public 
Baths, and Morehall Sub-Station. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE CARE OF THE SICK AND WOUNDED. 
By Various Contributors. 

In the early days of the war Folkestone was 
requested to report what buildings could be utilised 
for the care of the wounded. The military hospital 
accommodation on the Camp was largely increased, 
and provision was made in the town. Morehall Schools 
were furnished for the reception of patients, but not 
used, as they did not entirely comply with the War 
Office requirements. 

The Royal Victoria Hospital set apart as many beds 
in the wards as possible, and later placed others in 
spacious corridors. The medical staff was depleted 
by Dr. Linington leaving for France, where he did 
great things in the operating theatre and in organising 
hospital administration. 

Dr. T. Eastes had charge of the X-Ray Department. 
Dr. Tyson, who has worked like a Trojan all through the 
war, was entrusted with making the arrangements with 
the War Office, and finally it was agreed that a hundred 
beds would meet the requirements. But how little were 
the authorities able to foretell the results of the war. 

Many ladies volunteered assistance ; the doctors' 
wives undertook to furnish a number of beds. Mrs. 
Linington collected nearly £100 for additional equip- 
ment, and other ladies gave or lent bedding. French 
and Belgian refugees were received as patients, and 



132 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

generally the wards were kept very full. In all 1,760 
wounded soldiers have been treated as in-patients, and 
276 Belgian soldiers and 37 refugees. Large numbers 
of minor cases have been treated in the out-patients' 
department, and many were the expressions of 
gratitude received by the Committee. 

There were two occasions upon which the Hospital 
was enabled to render exceptional service : one when 
the French steamer, the Amiral Ganteaume, was 
torpedoed in mid-Channel. This incident is described 
in another chapter, but it must be recorded here that 
the Victoria Hospital rendered magnificent service to 
the poor sufferers by the medical staff and nurses 
going to their aid and assisting in doing the first things 
imperatively required. On the night of the disaster 37 
bad cases were treated. Dr. Tyson and his colleagues 
were in attendance for long hours, and the sisters 
kept to their tasks all through the night. It is not 
too much to say that a number of patients owed 
their lives to the self-denial of the doctors and the 
nurses. 

It would be invidious to single out one institution 
in the medical service more than another, and in the 
Folkestone area the hospitals were particularly 
fortunate in their medical and nursing staffs, and the 
Victoria Hospital was among the most fortunate of 
them all. 

The other occasion was upon the night of the air 
raid. Over 80 casualties were admitted, and before 
midnight 25 bodies were laid out in the mortuary. 
About six other victims died subsequently. It was 
impossible for the Hospital to take all the patients. 
Some of them were treated for their immediate needs 



THE CARE OF SICK AND WOUNDED. 1 33 

and then removed to Shorncliffe, where they remained 
tor a few weeks, returning to the Victoria Hospital 
to complete their recovery. Those who were in the 
Hospital on that fateful 25th of May will never forget 
the grim sight of the bodies huddled together in the 
corridor, and the limbs brought in wrapped in blankets. 
It was more terrible than a battle scene. It was so 
ruthless and wanton in its savagery. There were the 
bodies of women and little children, maimed and 
shattered by the crime of war. The moans of the 
sufferers were heard in every part of the building. 
Nurses and doctors and voluntary workers rapidly 
passed upon their errands of mercy and ministry of 
healing. The Matron by her sympathetic words 
comforted many a heart. Special constables and men 
whose names are unrecorded brought patients to the 
wards, and helped in the institution. Some members 
of the Committee were with the present writer taking 
names and addresses of patients, and assisting 
bereaved people in identifying the killed, while 
others went upon sorrowful journeys to relatives in 
the town to tell them where the bodies of their loved 
ones were resting. 

Among the bright things of the war will stand out 
the work of the medical organisations. What lives 
they saved, what ministries of healing they accom- 
plished. There will be criticism of some shortcomings 
at this or that period, but when it is all told there will 
be nothing more wonderful in the chronicles of the 
war than the care of our wounded men, and among 
the local records there is nothing brighter than the 
story of the help rendered on the night of the air raid. 
The staff of the Victoria Hospital, Miss Browne 



134 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

(the Matron), with Sisters Lawson and McBeth, seemed 
tireless in their efforts, and Mrs. Haines and Miss 
A. Cearns did much useful work in the Wards. 

The Matron and Sisters named were mentioned 
in ' ' The Times ' list of October 20th, 1917, for valuable 
services rendered during the war. Folkestone owes 
them a debt which it can never repay. 

The Bevan Hospital was opened almost immediately 
upon the declaration of war. It originated in the 
Voluntary Aid Detachment Kent 30 of the British 
Red Cross, with Miss M. A. Mumford as Commandant. 
The premises in Sandgate had been used as a Con- 
valescent Home, though for a long time they had 
been empty, and had fallen into a dilapidated 
condition. The Commandant gathered together a 
number of workers, who speedily transformed the 
rooms and made them into one of the most comfortable 
hospitals on the South East Coast. 

After six months' work the hospital became an 
annexe to Shorncliffe Military Hospital, and was 
allowed to rank as Class A. From that time there 
was a continuous influx of patients, including Imperial 
troops, Australians, Canadians, and Belgians. The 
medical staff included Drs. Calverley, Bradbury, Davis, 
Fitzgerald, Hackney, and Perry, and for a short time 
Drs. Stranaghan and Scoones. The central court was 
entirely devoted to open-air treatment, and here the 
most obstinate cases of septic poisoning were 
rapidly cured ; so much, indeed, were the patients 
benefited by their sojourn here that whenever any 
of them for one reason or other were moved 
indoors they invariably begged, even in wintry 
weather, to be taken back. This open-air sea ward 



THE CARE OF SICK AND WOUNDED. 135 

was sheltered from the rains and winds by a transparent 
roof and storm blinds, erected through private 
generosity, and only in the event of the most severe 
gale was this ward vacated. 

Unlike many military hospitals, the kitchen depart- 
ment at the Bevan was entirely managed by ladies, 
who, with the aid of two salaried kitchen-maids, 
undertook the whole of the culinary work. Under 
their supervision every endeavour was made to send 
up the different meals, not merely in sufficient quantity, 
but skilfully and daintily cooked. Among the most 
efficient workers in this department was the late Miss 
Margaret Bishop. She was head of the staff. For 
some months at the commencement of the war she was 
at her post at four in the morning, and when she had 
finished her duties went on to assist in canteen work. 
Later she had entire charge, and spared no efforts 
to make her department a success. There is no doubt 
that her death was the result of over-work. She 
was greatly beloved by her colleagues, and had the 
respect of the patients with whom she came in contact. 
It may be said of her as much as of any soldier in 
the field that she willingly laid down her life for the 
country. Her fragrant memory will linger with 
many men who were wooed back to health by the 
staff at the Bevan. A scholarship has been founded 
by her father to perpetuate her memory. Mr. 
Alderman E. J. Bishop has himself undertaken many 
duties in connection with the war, not the least being 
that of Chairman of the Refugees Committee. 

More than 12,100 patients passed through the 
Bevan, and there were 1,552 operations performed. 
The men were loud in their praise of the doctors and 



I36 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

the nurses. Miss Mumford received distinction at 
the hands of the King, but perhaps her greatest 
honour is in the fact that she made the hospital more 
like a home than a public institution. Miss C. Dale 
was Assistant Commandant, and Miss House Honorary- 
Secretary. Mrs. Chambers had charge of the sanitary 
and kit department. 

The Canadian Hospitals were worked entirely by 
the Military Authorities, and hardly come within 
the range of this volume, and yet we would be loth 
to omit them. The work at the West Cliff should be 
known in Canada. The staff represented specialists 
from all over the Dominion, with the assistance of 
some of the most eminent men in this country. 
Literally, wonders were performed in throat, eye, and 
ear cases, while the special department called the 
"nose factory" performed miracles. Men went in 
terribly disfigured, whose faces would have been 
horrors but for the surgeon's skill. They came out 
bearing scarcely a trace of their disfigurement. 
Sketches were made of the lost feature, a nose was 
designed, and made up in model. Then thin cuttings 
of bone were built in to the disfigured member, and 
covered with flesh until, as one boy expressed it, 
' ' they ceased to be frights. ' ' 

The hospital was visited by the Duke of Connaught, 
Princess Louise and Princess Alexander of Teck, 
in addition to the Prime Minister of Canada and many 
well-known people from the Dominions, all of whom 
expressed much pleasure with the arrangements for 
the care of the sick and the wounded. 

The Queen's Canadian Military Hospital, Beech- 
borough Park, was operated and maintained by 




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THE CARE OF SICK AND WOUNDED. I37 

the Canadian War Contingents Association. This 
body was organised among Canadians in August, 1914, 
to supply extra comforts to the men of the Dominions 
at the Fronts, and to maintain a hospital for the 
general use of His Majesty's Forces. An offer was 
made to the Army Council, through Queen Mary, 
to maintain a hospital in connection with the camp. 
Her Majesty has always taken the keenest interest 
in the care of the wounded. The offer was accepted, 
and the house and grounds at Beechborough Park 
were lent by the late Sir Arthur Markham, M.P., and 
Lady Markham, without whose assistance the hospital 
could not have attained the reputation it enjoyed. 

It was opened in October, 1914, with 55 beds. 
In the summer of 1915 it was decided to erect four 
new wards in the grounds ; a recreation room was 
added, and an excellent operating theatre with the 
latest appliances installed. Lieut. -Col. Sir William 
Osier, Bart., M.D., and Lieut.-Col. Donald Amour, 
C.M.G., both Canadians, were the Physician-in-Chief 
and the Surgeon-in-Chief respectively. Lady Mark- 
ham was the first Superintendent. The officers, 
matrons; nurses, and V.A.D.'s were all Canadians. 

The hospital was classed as a primary hospital for all 
kinds of surgical cases. About 3,000 soldiers 
passed through the wards, with only 30 deaths, which 
is a great tribute to the care and attention given to 
the very serious cases that were treated. Beech- 
borough was the only Canadian hospital in the United 
Kingdom supported by voluntary funds and open to 
all the wounded soldiers of His Majesty's Dominions. 
Sir George Purley was the President of the Association, 
and Mr. J. G. Colmer, C.M.G., the Honorary Secretary. 



I38 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

The hospital closed early in 1919. At that time, the 
Officer in charge was Captain James Christie, the 
Resident Medical Officer Captain A. J. Fisher, and 
the Matron Miss Mitchell. 

Folkestone residents arranged for concert parties 
to visit Beechborough. Many local entertainments 
were organised for the benefit of the patients, and 
greatly appreciated. In this connection it may be 
recorded that several residents, notably Mrs. Walter 
Joseph and Miss Bridget Keir, in addition to the 
choirs of several churches, regularly supplied concerts 
for hospital patients and convalescents. 

The Canadian Lodge of Freemasons in London 
and the Masonic Order in the Dominions co- 
operated with great cordiality, and contributed 
liberally to the funds. The Canadian Red Cross 
Society gave £1,000, and many individual donations 
were received. 

St. Andrew's Convalescent Home on the East 
Cliff received during the last year of the war 342 
soldiers, convalescents, and five sailors, making a 
total of i,i2i during the war. The Report says : 
"The Inmates were very happy and appreciative 
of the Home. They improved very greatly during 
their stay." It is interesting to note that 74 silver 
badged men were sent by the War Pensions Committee 
and others from private sources, men discharged from 
the services in poor health and unfit for work. Three 
or four weeks at the Home proved a sovereign remedy, 
and sent them back to their occupations with strength 
renewed. 

Manor Court and York House Hospitals were 
originally nursing homes arranged for private patients. 



THE CARE OF SICK AND WOUNDED. 139 

The owners, Miss Harrold and Miss Edden, placed 
them at the disposal of the War Office. The medical 
staff included : Dr. P. Lewis, Dr. Streatfeild, Dr. 
Wainwright, Dr. Wilgress, also Dr. Palk and Dr. 
Menzies, ophthalmic specialists. 

The two houses had a total accommodation for 
about 100 patients. Each had its operating theatre, 
and all the appliances demanded by modern medical 
and surgical science. These hospitals were very 
popular. Many ladies offered their services, and 
some even offered to pay for the privilege of working 
in the wards. Local residents were generous in their 
response to the appeals made for funds, and enabled 
those responsible to brighten the rooms and add to 
the comfort of the boys. In Manor Court Hospital 
nearly three thousand patients were treated. 
There were 180 major operations, and only nine 
deaths. The nursing staff worked untiringly, 
Miss Harrold and Miss Edden were the Matrons, 
and succeeded in making the inmates very comfortable. 
Sister Thompson and Sister Peetz set an example 
that was magnetic. 

In the early days Col. Reason, D.S.O., had the 
supervision of the whole of the Medical Institutions 
in the area, comprising fifty-seven hospitals. The 
command became too large, and was divided into 
districts. 

Manor House Hospital, lent by the owners, was 
opened about the end of October, 1914. The beautiful 
residence used to be the home of the Earl of Radnor, 
and it made a charming little hospital of 90 beds. 
The Commandant was the Hon. Florence Daly, and 
the V.A.D. carried on the work of the institution 



I4O FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

throughout the War. The first convoy consisted 
of 50 Belgians. In November the stream of British 
wounded began to pour in. In the spring five 
tents were erected in the garden ; the number of 
beds was increased to 120. Of these, 10 or 12 were 
always available for officers. 

3,392 patients were received ; 2,136 were British- 
There were 976 Canadians, 170 Australians, no 
Belgians. Many out-patients were also treated. 
During the whole time there were only six deaths, 
which is eloquent testimony to the work of the in- 
stitution. 

The medical staff consisted at first of Drs. Chambers, 
Evans, and Wood, with Dr. Gore and Dr. Dodd as 
physicians. Dr. Tyson was consulting physician, 
and Mr. J. Walton dentist. When Dr. Evans joined 
the R.A.M.C. and went to France Dr. Eastes was 
added to the staff. Miss Crawford was appointed 
Matron, and the Hospital owed much to her powers 
of organization. 

The people of Folkestone were very kind to the 
patients. Gifts of all sorts arrived at the Hospital, 
and extra pleasures and comforts were provided. 
Entertainments and motor drives for those who 
we re able to go out did much to break the monotony 
of convalescence. 

A considerable amount of unobtrusive, but very 
useful work was done by the men's V.A.D.'s. There 
were two Voluntary Aid Detachments in Folkestone 
at the outbreak of War. One was V.A.D. Kent 9, 
which was raised by the Folkestone and Sandgate St. 
John Ambulance Brigade, of which Mr. F. A. Adams 
was the Commandant and Mr. John Strood the 



THE CARE OF SICK AND WOUNDED. I4I 

Quartermaster. The other was V.A.D. Kent 43, 
raised by the British Red Cross Society, with Mr. H. O. 
Jones as Commandant, and Mr. W. C. Marsh as 
Quartermaster. 

V.A.D. Kent 9 at once responded to the order for 
mobilization issued in October, 1914, and took up 
duty in assisting to gi\e skilled aid to the thousands 
of Belgian soldiers brought to the Harbour. 

The Voluntary Aid Detachment under the 
command of Mr. H. O. Jones, Chief Officer of the 
Folkestone Fire Brigade, was formed from the Special 
Constables, and finally was recognised by the British 
Red Cross Society as a separate unit : V.A.D. Kent 43. 

The work of these men at the Harbour was of a 
trying nature, especially when it is remembered that 
they were engaged in their own occupations during 
a considerable part of the day. They received the 
wounded as they arrived, in every conceivable kind 
of craft, totally unfitted for the conveyance of suffering 
men whose wounds were undressed, or at best only 
roughly bandaged. 

It was the task of the men of the detachments to 
make the sufferers a little more comfortable ; to 
remove them on stretchers from the ships ; to carry 
them to the trains, and often to go with them to 
render assistance on the journey. Some of the men 
engaged in this work were on duty for over thirty 
hours consecutively. It is estimated that the detach- 
ments dealt with more than 7,000 wounded soldiers. 

Wounded British soldiers began to arrive in con- 
siderable numbers at the end of 1914, for treatment 
in local hospitals. The method of working was 
for telephonic messages to be sent from the Military 



142 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

Hospitals to Mr. H. Evans and Mr. H. 0. Jones, 
stating the probable time of arrival of the hospital 
train, and giving the number of stretcher and walking 
cases. The officers called up their available men 
and reported to the medical officer in charge, by whom 
they were detailed for special duty. 

Stretchers were prepared on the platform, and the 
men stood by until the train arrived, which often meant 
waiting several hours. On the coming of the wounded, 
walking cases were taken in cars, lent by residents, 
and by motor chars-a-banc, while the cot cases, on 
stretchers, were placed in ambulance wagons. The 
cases were then distributed to local Hospitals. One 
hundred-and-twenty-one hospital trains, with 12,300 
wounded, were attended to by V.A.D. men. 

Mr. Evans, the Area Transport Officer, received, in 
common with his colleague, many expressions of 
appreciation from the Military Authorities on the 
Camp, and the work of the Corps was of great value. 
Major Reason bore testimony to the ability and un- 
selfishness of the Corps. 

Members of V.A.D. Kent 43 undertook, for nearly 
two years, regular duty as orderlies at Manor Court 
Nursing Home, and until the spring of 1918, Sunday 
orderly duty, with occasional all-nights reliefs to the 
regular staff of the Bevan Hospital. Kent 9 did 
duty at the Manor House, which was staffed entirely 
by members of St. John Ambulance Brigade. In the 
early days of 191 5 the detachment formed a squad 
of men, under an officer, for duty during the night 
at the Harbour, and at the request of the Chief Con- 
stable squads of trained ambulance men took duty 
at the Police Station each evening, to attend to the 



THE CARE OF SICK AND WOUNDED. 143 

numerous accidents which occurred, owing to the 
traffic in the darkened streets. 

The men had charge of the Emergency Hospital, 
arranged by the Town Council, at the Technical 
Institute, in case of air raid casualties. Fortunately, 
it was only required on one occasion, May 25th, 1917, 
when the V.A.D.'s, though they did not receive the 
usual warning from the Military Authorities, turned 
out as soon as the bombs commenced to fall, and 
did what was possible to mitigate suffering in the 
streets and at the hospitals. Previously to 25th May, 
1917, there were no public warnings other than the ex- 
tinguishing of street lamps and orders to drivers of 
vehicles to put out their lights. A squad of men were 
nightly on duty at Dover Road. The members of 
both detachments were warned from the Fire Station 
when hostile aircraft were known to be actually 
approaching the district. The men proceeded to their 
duties, and remained until the ' ' All Clear ' ' sounded. 
Over one hundred air raid warnings were issued 
by the Military Authorities, through the police, from 
1915 to 1918. 

The Military Authorities in 1917 called for the 
formation of a Voluntary Field Ambulance to be 
ready to co-operate with the Royal Army Medical 
Corps for coastal defence. Men of the V.A.D. joined 
almost en bloc, and constituted the Folkestone Section 
of Kent No. 1 V.A.D. Provisional Field Ambulance, 
with headquarters at Canterbury, and its war station 
at Deal. In January, 1918, the Kent R.A.M.C. 
Volunteers were raised and equipped by the War 
Office. The V.A.D. Provisional Field Ambulance 
formed the nucleus of the Corps. The Folkestone 



144 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

section, which acted as "C, " 329 Field Ambulance, 
R.A.M.C., was under the command of Dr. W. W. 
Linington, as Major ; Dr. E. L. Pridmore was Captain, 
Mr. H. O. Jones Lieutenant, and Mr. H. Evans 
Lieutenant-Quartermaster. Both Major Linington 
and Captain Pridmore subsequently joined the 
Regulars, and the command was, in September, taken 
over by Dr. E. D. Fitzgerald. Had there been need, 
the Company was fully equipped to undertake work 
in France, or on the coast. 




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CHAPTER VIII. 

SOCIAL LIFE IN WARTIME, 
By Ernest R. J. Mackway. 

Much of Folkestone's social life was woven into 
socks and stitched into shirts. 

The presence of a common danger humanised the 
people, as it were ; breaking down those sharp barriers 
of distinction which years of peaceful prosperity had 
set up. A snow-storm very often has the same 
transitory effect. 

The town got to know itself better. Sorrow brought 
a wondrous surge of sympathy, and difficulties the 
desire for mutual help ; and so, beneath the gathering 
clouds of war, the social life whirled in unaccustomed 
circles. Are we the better for it ? Tempus omnia 
revelat. 

It is night. The air is heavy with grim stillness. 
Suddenly the warning sirens shriek in sinister dis- 
sonance. Again the portentous stillness. Great shafts 
of light sweep into the ebon vault, and there comes 
the muffled moan of distant guns. Then the weird 
horrific hum of engines in rising crescendo . . . the 
roar of near-by artillery . . . the sprinkle of shrapnel 
on slated roof. Another air raid ! To the nearest house ! 
"Why, certainly, come in at once," says the host. 
' ' What will you have — brandy or coffee ? Yes, 
these raids are a bit startling, but it's part of the war, 
I suppose. Let's put out the light and see what's 



I46 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

going on. . . . Look at the shells bursting. . . 
Gad, but I hope they hit 'em ! ' ' And so on till the 
' ' All clear ! ' ' sounds, and the shelterers leave their 
kindly host with another friendship formed. In years 
to come you may hear men speak of how they first 
met So-and-so during an air raid. 

It is a cheap cynicism to say that Folkestone 
never fully realised there was a war on until Conscrip- 
tion came into force, but it is nevertheless true that 
the coming of the Military Service Act, with its ever- 
increasing tentacles, very considerably altered the 
social aspect of things. The men who were soldiers 
by profession and those who had volunteered for the 
stern work of War had gone, in mysterious silence, 
to God knew where. Vague tales of disaster filtered 
through, and sometimes you would hear a depressed 
and tired warrior declare that we could never win. 
Yet Folkestone, in common with all England, never 
lost heart. We would ' ' muddle through ' ' somehow, 
and we did, in very truth, muddle through. 

When, however, the call came for all men who could 
be considered in any way fit to bear arms, there were 
very considerable heart -searchings and knee-quakings, 
and Tribunals and Appeal Tribunals assumed an 
importance far, far above that of a world conflagration 
or a cosmic cataclysm. One envied not the Mayor 
and his colleagues who were suddenly charged with 
the responsibility — the very grave responsibility — of 
sending their fellow townsmen to the Forces, yet, 
to the Government, which is the people themselves, 
it became a very necessary thing. Thus, fathers 
were torn from their families, husbands from their 
wives, and sons from their mothers, and so the whole 



SOCIAL LIFE IN WARTIME. I47 

social fabric seemed ever-changing. The kiddies were 
proud to think of their soldier daddies, but the mothers 
who were left behind knew what they had to face. 
Some people have publicly declared that the way the 
wives fought and overcame difficulties has been one 
of the miracles of the War. Men faced perils with 
pals and platoons ; the women vicariously faced those 
perils in silent solitude, and, until the blessed day of the 
Armistice, the terror of evil tidings was ever present. 
To those to whom that terror came, to those who 
gave their all for England, we stand in respectful 
homage, trusting that, while the passing years may 
calm the stricken soul, the memory of their sacrifice 
will never fade. 

That is a tribute we owe and which we gladly pay. 
But it must not be taken that a settled gloom descended 
upon the inhabitants of Folkestone. That was far 
from being the case, as we shall seek to show in the 
ensuing pages, the object of which is to attempt to 
reflect the social spirit in the diversity of its expression. 

It was said that practically no visitors came to 
Folkestone during the greater part of the War period. 
How could they, it was asked, when so many houses 
had been taken over by the Military Authorities, 
while others had been vacated by occupants who 
went in search of more peaceful climes ? Yet, in point 
of fact, Folkestone, probably in the whole course of its 
career as a fashionable South Coast watering-place, 
never entertained greater crowds of visitors. From 
the four corners of the earth they came — the dusky 
Hindoo, the slant-eyed Oriental, the stalwart Anti- 
podean, the resolute Canadian. It was, as it seemed, 
the gathering-place of the peoples of the world, the 



I48 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

focus-point of the League of Nations, speaking many 
tongues, but unified in one common, set purpose — the 
Triumph of Right. 

For the most part these were as ships that pass 
in the night. But the Canadians stayed, and Folke- 
stone speedily became a suburb of many a Dominion 
City. Indeed, it may be said that Folkestone was 
completely Canadianised. The town took the boys 
to its heart immediately, and during the years the 
Canadian troops were stationed here the warmest 
possible feeling existed between them and the towns- 
people, while the higher commands and the civic 
authorities were cemented by very real friendship. 
The formation of the Canadian Club, which brought 
to Folkestone so many eminent men, set the seal to 
this. The various social clubs of the town were thrown 
open to those from the Land of the Maple Leaf ; 
brethren of the Masonic Craft held many happy unions 
and reunions ; and institutions sprang up like 
mushrooms for the entertainment of the men. 

Meanwhile Folkestone gradually absorbed many of 
the customs and quaint terms of expression so 
characteristic of Canada. You forgot to say ' ' Yes, ' ' 
because ' ' Sure ! ' ' was much more fashionable, and 
you never spoke of having had a good meal. ' ' Good 
eats" was the correct equivalent. So, too, did our 
young people try to imitate the "semi-nasal twang" 
they thought so ' ' fetching, ' ' and learned to dance 
and "rag" and sway as their Transatlantic friends 
would have them do. 

So, out of this commingling of people speaking the 
same mother tongue arose many .a happy romance 
which ended in rice and confetti at Folkestone churches, 



SOCIAL LIFE IN WARTIME. I49 

or in quiet plighted word at a registry office, and war 
brides awaited with impatience the day when they 
would sail for the Promised Land. And if, in some 
cases, romance was shattered and deceit claimed its 
victim, well, the greater is greater than the less, and 
human nature, as a whole, rings good and true. The 
coming of the Canadians opened up possibilities for 
the girls of this country which, but for the War, might 
never have been. 

In the absence of the men, the women carried on 
but not in a perverted sense admirably. We saw 
the trim-figured W.A.A.C's. either at work here or 
marching down the Slope on their way to France. 
We saw the patient, tired-faced nurses, the W.R.A.F's 
and the W.R. (e) N.S. and, occasionally, the rosy- 
cheeked women of the Land Army, smocked and 
breeched and legginged, exuding radiant health. 
The banks opened their desks to lady clerks and 
perhaps were sorry they had not done so before, and 
behind the counters of nearly all the shops your wants — 
from ironmongery to ham — were attended to by 
women. Here again was the social life changing. 
Girls who had never been "out" before knew what 
it was to draw a wage that had been well and truly 
earned, and life opened out to them a new perspective. 
To the credit of a great many, let it be gratefully 
recorded that after a hard day in shop or office they 
donned their V.A.D. nursing rig and ministered to 
the comfort of our broken boys, or worked in canteen 
or club for the entertainment of the fit. Yes, all the 
while, the women were behind the armies — steadfast 
and unfailing. 

Thoughts of the troops, fearlessly fighting on all 



150 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

Fronts, were never absent. Loving hands tied many 
a parcel of cheer and comfort, and restless fingers 
ceaselessly stitched and knitted, weaving into the wool 
something which was more than sympathy. Sewing 
parties in those days were sewing parties indeed. 
There was no time for the social scarifier to work. 
The talk was of the boys — always the boys — save 
perhaps when the rationing of food became necessary. 
That struck a big blow to social hospitality. It was 
not easy to give a dinner-party and request your 
guests to bring their own meat ; and meatless con- 
coctions threw rather more responsibility on your 
kitchen staff than you cared to allow. 

The food question, indeed, calls for passing reference. 
At first we bound ourselves in honour not to eat more 
than so much bread per diem, and declared to the 
world the sincerity of our undertaking by notifying 
the fact from our front windows. Moreover, we 
diligently studied economy, and regarded waste of 
any kind as a cardinal sin. Then we sought to solve 
the mystery of substitution, which was difficult to 
our custom-bound selves, for can any sane Britisher 
imagine anything else for breakfast but bacon and 
eggs ? Yet something had to be found, and although 
Empires began to totter around us, the British Con- 
stitution held fast. When queues began to form 
outside provision shops, and one saw, with infinite 
regret, little children standing in the cold and rain, 
it was realised that drastic steps were necessary if 
there was to be equality of distribution, and thus 
rationing came into being. 

So, like good and loyal citizens, we adjusted ourselves 
to new circumstances. What we had looked upon as 



SOCIAL LIFE IN WARTIME. 151 

butter, margarine, and lard now became "fats," 
and certain delicacies with which, in the past, we had 
endeavoured to stimulate our jaded appetites were 
now known under the generic and hideously offensive 
title of "offal." Dear, respectable ladies held up 
their hands in pious horror when told they could 
have offal, and, forsooth, it was not nice to refined 
ears ; but, mirabile dictu, it grew to be a cherished 
word. If you went to a tea party you were expected 
to take your own sugar. In fact, your first gay words 
on entering a house were, "I've brought my sugar," 
at the same time producing a dainty little silken bag, 
or, if you were rich and well-favoured, a costly but 
convenient silver pocket casket. When the milk 
supply threatened to become short one hoped that no 
friend of D.O.R.A. was watching when one of your 
guests said she always regretted the American War 
because it introduced condensed milk. 

"Dora," to tell the truth, became an obsession. 
She grew to be a very real and terrible person, with 
unlimited powers and a positive genius for "butting 
in" where she was least wanted. Mrs. Grundy was 
unpleasant and unpopular enough in all conscience, 
but "Dora" was a horror which stalked by night and 
by day, implacable and incorruptible — Argus-eyed 
and relentless — in a word, a nuisance, but, as all will 
admit, a necessary nuisance. A protean guardian of 
the Realm, she could assume numerous appearances 
and personalities — from a Staff Officer to a Special 
Constable, and you never really knew how "Dora" was 
going to turn up. If you were mad enough to commit 
some heinous crime against the King and his Crown, 
"Dora" was seen in the characters of a Court Martial 



152 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

and a firing squad one dread morning. If you thought- 
lessly sketched a fishing boat leaving the harbour, 
"Dora" might come in the guise of a Red-cap ; while if 
you were guilty of the colossal folly of telling an absent 
friend what happened on the night of so-and-so at 
such-and-when, "Dora" might sail in as a policeman in 
the full dignity of the Law. If, perchance, you left 
a light burning, and it threw a wedge of brilliance 
across the footpath, "Dora" became a Special Con- 
stable who faithfully investigated how and by what 
means ' ' that there light ' ' was showing, contrary to the 
provisions of sub-section mi, section 2222 of the 
Consolidated (2) Order (59) of the Defence of the 
Realm Regulations, 1914-1918. 

The Lighting Order, by the way, led to many other- 
wise perfectly respectable persons being haled before 
the Court of Summary Jurisdiction. A Magistrate 
once said to a military witness, "Could a Zeppelin 
have seen the light ? " " Can't say, ' ' replied the man, 
' ' never been in a Zeppelin. ' ' Another witness declared 
that at a certain house a naked light was showing. 
The defendant indignantly protested that it could 
not be naked as it had a mantle ! So we all hid our 
lights under bushels of coverings, thereby saving 
many fines, and, in the streets, we groped about in 
the inky blackness, barging into trees, falling off 
kerbs, cannoning off walls into people, and, for the 
first time in our lives, envying the cats, which, it is 
said, are gifted with nocturnal vision. 

Harking back for a moment to the Food Question, 
the people, urged by the Government, went in for 
gardening with amazing enthusiasm. Men and women 
who, mayhap, thought that potatoes grew on trees for 




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SOCIAL LIFE IN WARTIME. 153 

all they knew of agriculture dug and delved in their 
newly acquired allotments, and, assisted by text books 
and the practical wisdom of experienced gardeners 
(for there is an open-hearted camaraderie among 
those who would seek Nature's gifts), grew highly 
creditable crops, as a big vegetable show held in the 
Town Hall in the autumn of 1918 demonstrated. 
Unkindly folk spoke lightly of "the luck of the 
innocents," but it was something more than that. 
Previously, except at meetings of the Gardeners' 
Society, it had been rare to hear men wax ecstatic 
over a tuber, or speak in dithyrambic terms of a 
cabbage, a cauliflower, or a Brussels sprout, yet now 
the points of a well-grown vegetable were weighed 
and debated with meticulous care, and he was a happy 
soul whose leeks excelled in quality those of his 
colleagues. Gardening, then, played an important role 
in the social life of Folkestone, and who shall say that 
the people, despite their aching backs and strained 
muscles, were not the better for getting nearer Nature's 
heart ? 

Those recreative centres, the Clubs, went quietly 
on their way, the members who remained behind 
making it a point of honour to ' ' carry on ' ' (no matter 
the difficulties), so that when the absent ones returned 
to the fold they should find things as they left them. 
Thus the Rowing Club maintained its position, 
although, of course, no sculls were seen in feverish 
competition, as of yore. Bowls were always popular, 
especially among the convalescent Tommies, and tennis 
attracted its votaries. Golf revivified the tired towns- 
men and kept officers "in the pink," and while there 
was but little cricket or football, baseball, with its 



154 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

* ' Fan ' ' and its extraordinary ' ' barracking, ' ' appealed 
to the residents, but particularly to the Canadians, 
whose own game it was. The Folkestone Club was the 
scene of many a merry gathering of wounded who 
enjoyed a generous hospitality. Nor were the children 
forgotten. 

Reformers have regretted that so much of our social 
life has centred in the public houses. Still, for our 
present purpose, we must take things as we find them. 
One of the papers crystallised the new conditions as 
applying to the ' ' pubs ' ' when, in a comic illustration, 
a faithful follower of Bacchus up-to-date exclaimed 
vehemently, "Yus, this his an 'orrible war. Why, 
look at the price of beer ! ' ' But while the price of 
beer went up alarmingly, the hours of supply were 
cut down in a very determined way, and so it became 
increasingly difficult to emerge into that happy state of 
vinous exultation whence one is supposed to view 
things through rose-tinted glasses — which was just 
what the Central Control Board were aiming at. The 
cry was for national efficiency and the maximum 
output of labour, not to mention the safeguarding of 
the troops from temptation. 

Thus it became impossible to purchase drink save 
between the hours of 12 and 2.30 and between 6 and 8, 
and no officer or soldier proceeding overseas could, 
under any pretext whatever, be served. This led to 
not a little indignation, and, indeed, it did seem to 
the superficial mind something more than a hardship 
that those who were on their way to the sternest 
possible duty — to face the hideous perils of modern 
warfare — were denied their glass, while those living 
at home in comfort and relative safety could have just 



SOCIAL LIFE IN WARTIME. 155 

what they liked to pay for. But there was no doubt 
excellent reason for the Order, and it has been eagerly 
admitted that the licensed victuallers did their very 
utmost to carry out such drastic regulations amid a 
sea of perplexities which are not always appreciated. 
Whether the general restrictions had anything to do 
with the increase in drug-taking or the fostering of 
industrial unrest elsewhere, it is no business of ours 
here to enquire. Folkestone, at any rate, cheerfully 
accepted the position and made the best of it. 

Was the "No-treating" Order actually resented or 
not ? It is a little difficult to say. It certainly 
struck at a time-honoured custom, rendering all those 
defying the regulation amenable to criminal prosecution. 
Of course the law was evaded time after time, as laws 
always will be. In that it put a stop to ' ' group drink- 
ing, ' ' which no sane man ever justified, it was benefi- 
cent legislation ; in that it prevented the friendly 
exchange of a glass as between two old pals, it was, 
perhaps, open to criticism. Again, when it became 
unlawful for a man to buy for his wife a glass of wine 
or stout (and habits are not easily broken) it seemed 
as though we had reached the reductio ad absurdum. 
However, the greater must ever include the lesser ; 
and, with a vagrant "grouse" or two, the inevitable 
was accepted in the hope of better times to be. 
With the coming of the Armistice some of these far- 
reaching Orders fell into desuetude ; but never was the 
hope expressed that we should eventually revert to the 
"bad old times" when the public houses were open 
continuously from very early in the morning till late at 
night, with so little opportunity afforded the landlord 
or his staff to enjoy the benefits of God's good air. 



156 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

Coincident with the emergence of women and girls 
into winningly aggressive activity in helping England 
inher hour of need came the extension of the Franchise 
to all ladies over 30 years of age, and, for the first time, 
those of the gentler sex who did not mind admitting 
that they were more than thirty cast a Parliamentary 
vote in December, 1918. They regarded this business 
quite earnestly, as all Suffragists knew they would, 
although, in the very nature of things, there could be no 
great political excitement. All parties, however much 
divided on other matters, coalesced for a Win-the-War 
Government, and so they returned the Sitting Member 
(Major Sir Philip Sassoon) who had done and was 
doing important and responsible work on Sir Douglas 
Haig's staff somewhere in France. A little side-show 
was put up by the newly-formed Labour Party, and 
although this was not taken too seriously, still it added 
interets to the contest, which would otherwise have 
been as flat as yesterday's paper. 

From the point of view of the amusement caterers, 
there possibly never were such times. Night after 
night the Pleasure Gardens Theatre, where the best 
productions "on the road" could be seen, presented 
the appearance of solid, hard-packed masses of khaki, 
and similar conditions obtained at the Kinemas. The 
imposition of the Entertainments Tax made not one 
penny difference to the audiences, although it amounted 
to millions the country over for the Government. 
A noteworthy development was the scheme of Sunday 
evening concerts for soldiers and their friends in the 
Leas Shelter, and a few explanatory words in this 
special connection will not be tnal-a-propos. 

It was felt that something should be done to provide 



SOCIAL LIFE IN WARTIME. 1 57 

a reasonable attraction for soldiers, who, if they did 
not elect to go to church (and there were a great 
many who did not), had only the public houses to visit, 
or the cold, dark, wet, and dreary streets to roam about 
in. A Committee was formed, and it was arranged to 
give special Sunday evening concerts for the khaki 
lads and their friends in the Queen's Kinema, the Town 
Hall, and the Leas Shelter. At the Queen's Kinema 
and the Town Hall the concerts did not realise 
expectations. 

The Queen's was possibly not well enough known, 
and the big room at the Town Hall had been turned 
into a Restaurant for Soldiers — an institution which 
won ever-increasing respect as a place where Tommy 
could get a good square meal at a reasonable figure 
" ' according to schedule. ' ' But the Leas Shelter, quite 
a small place dug into the cliff, had a very different 
story to tell. 

Sunday evening after Sunday evening great crowds 
of the khaki-clad, together with their lady friends, 
packed the Shelter, while on the entrance decks 
without (so carefully screened that not a glimmer of 
light showed seawards) the boys assembled in such 
density that passage-way was impossible. Within, 
the stringed orchestra played popular and pleasing 
pieces, and vocalists lent acceptable variety. Not a 
penny was charged, but it used to be suggested that 
the visitors might like to contribute (if they cared to) 
a penny or so to meet expenses, any surplus going 
to provide comforts for wounded soldiers then lying 
in the military hospitals in Folkestone. So successful 
did the concerts prove, and so much were they 
appreciated by the troops, that not only were expenses 



158 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

easily met, but a considerable amount of money was 
spontaneously and gladly given, wherewith to provide 
the ' ' Blighty ' ' boys with cigarettes, stamps, stationery, 
newpapers, and all those little comforts which the 
wounded so greatly valued, and which showed they 
were not entirely forgotten. 

But a concert lasting from 6.30 till 8 was not enough 
for the troops, and so it was arranged for them to have 
an ' ' impromptu ' ' hour. Anyone was invited to give 
a sample of his or her artistry, and many delightful 
times were spent, this Sunday hour proving an in- 
exhaustible mine of musical and dramatic talent of a 
standard which again showed that the Army, the Navy, 
and Air Force had seized unto themselves all that was 
best and brightest in young manhood. Men from all 
parts of the British Dominions will remember Sunday 
evenings in the Folkestone Leas Shelter. 

From time to time sports were arranged on the 
Athletic Ground, and one which particularly leaps to 
mind is the meeting of the W.A.A.C.'s when the little 
khaki ladies nobly battled for supremacy in all kinds 
of strenuous sport — racing, high jumping, relays, and 
so on, showing amazing endurance and unconquerable 
enthusiasm. The W.A.A.C.'s, who had their head- 
quarters at the Hotel Metropole, were exceedingly 
popular and it was not long before the soldiers ' ' palled 
up ' ' wit'h their friends of the Women's Army, couples 
in khaki being the rule rather than the exception. 
Khaki, the pervasive colour-scheme of Folkestone at 
that time, was useful if not alluring, so perhaps it was 
as well that the great majority of the W.A.A.C.'s had 
disappeared before their sisters of the W.R.A.F.'s came 
on the scene in their more attractive costume-uniforms 



SOCIAL LIFE IN WARTIME. 159 

of bewitching light blue — as blue as the skies through 
which the pilots drove their speedy planes. 

We lived in an age of rumour. A thoughtful Town 
Council had arranged for official telegrams to be posted 
up as they were received, in the Town Hall window, and 
immense crowds gathered from time to time to ascertain 
the latest intelligence. Never, perhaps, did faces 
appear graver than when the wires recorded the watery 
grave of Lord Kitchener. Following an air raid 
warning, everyone was on the alert to know "where 
they had been ' ' and the extent of the damage. Tales 
travelled, losing nothing in their telling, but it was not 
until long after the Armistice that the full facts were 
known to the general public. We heard about spies, 
of war babies, of Russian hordes passing through 
England ; but one of the most astounding stories was 
that connected with the flares of the Dover barrage. 
It was solemnly stated, and believed by not a few, that 
the flares liberated certain rays which either brought 
down enemy aeroplanes, or so interfered with the 
machinery and instruments, that airships became 
unmanageable. The facts that Edison was said to 
have been closeted up in a long and mysterious 
silence and that five Zeppelins lost themselves in 
France lent colour to this preposterous tale, which, 
nevertheless, brought solace to those to whom air 
raids were as the flapping of the wings of Death. 

The world now knows the story of those flares, and 
of the part they played in the defeat of German U-boat 
infamy. 



CHAPTER IX. 

CANADIAN LIFE IN FOLKESTONE. 

By The Editor. 

Canada was among the very first to respond to the 
Call of the Mother Country in her need. Within 
seven weeks of the outbreak of hostilities, the Land of 
the Maple Leaf had created an Army which ranked 
second to none in spirit and courage. Canada came 
into war by the side of England not for the first time 
in her history. She sent a gallant little force to join 
the liberators of India in the days of the Mutiny ; 
and in the South African War more than 7,000 
Canadians were with the British troops. In this War 
she played a noble, sacrificial part. 

Who shall tell the story of her achievements ? 
She came in to the conflict having least to gain in 
material things ; for her there was no question of 
territorial increase, no neighbouring lands that could 
become new parts of the Empire and fall under her 
influence, as in the case of South Africa, Australia, and 
New Zealand. She was not threatened by alien races. 
She had complete self-government, and could not 
look for greater liberty in managing her own affairs, 
as may be the case in India and some of the Crown 
Colonies. Canada is a daughter ; in her own home 
she reigns as queen. Her gain must be of a moral 
nature, an intangible sentiment, something that 
cannot be set down in figures or measured in miles, 




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CANADIAN LIFE IN FOLKESTONE. l6l 

but is an infinitely more valuable asset than any 
Treasury can show. Rudyard Kipling said the greatest 
gain of the War would be the greatening of the soul 
of the nation. That undoubtedly will be Canada's 
reward. 

The First Contingent came to Salisbury Plain. 
They will remember it, not for its association with 
Stonehenge and the rites of Druid worship, or for the 
quaintness of many of its ancient buildings, or even tha 
charm and mystic sentiment embodied in its beautiful 
cathedral, the Canadian boys will remember Salis- 
bury by its mud. What a contrast to the Camp at 
Valcartier, among the lovely Laurentian Mountains. 
There the open roads, with broad paths and electric 
lights, offered an invitation, even to tired men, to 
take a stroll. But Salisbury ! with its mud over the 
boots, and the rain that seemed to fall incessantly ! 
The boys 

"from Montreal, 
From Quebec, and Saquenay, 
From Ungava, Labrador, 
And all the lands about the Bay 
Which old Hudson quested for," 
gave themselves to forming fours, and the equipment 
for war. They were eager to get away. 

Canada answered the Call magnificently. Within 
eight weeks of the declaration of War, the Dominion 
had sent to Europe a force of 33,000 men, and very 
soon, at Langemarck, these men gave wonderful proof 
of their courage and skill. They saved Calais, and 
wrote the first page of one of the most glorious chapters 
in military history. 
The story was told in France of two boys meeting 



162 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

not far from Vimy Ridge. One of them belonged to 
the First Division, the other to the Second. They 
talked of their time in England at Salisbury and 
Folkestone. The boy from the Second Division said : 
"So you were at old Salisbury. You painted the 
place red, and left us something to live down in the 
Old Country." "Yes," said the other fellow, with a 
twinkle in his eye, ' ' We were at old Salisbury, and we 
did caper about and paint it red. Now we've been 
up there at Vimy Ridge, and we've painted that red, 
and left you something to live up to. ' ' 

Nobly did the boys of the Second Division live up 
to the traditions of Vimy Ridge. There is nothing 
finer in the history of our Empire than the story, the 
epic written in blood, of Vimy. It will be told in 
Canada and in England as, in the old days, was told 
the story of Agincourt, Crecy, and Waterloo. It 
should be written in lines to match Tennyson's ' ' Charge 
of the Light Brigade." 

The First Division was commanded by General 
Anderson, who, when addressing his men as they went 
into the trenches for the first time, said : 

"There is one thing more. My old regiment, the 
Royal West Kents, has been here since the beginning 
of the War, and has never lost a trench. The Army 
says the West Kents never budge. I am proud of 
the great record of my old regiment, and I think it is 
a good omen. I now belong to you, and you belong 
to me, and before long the Army will say, 'The 
Canadians never budge.' Lads, it can be left there, 
and there I leave it. The Germans will never turn 
you out." 

Kent is proud of the gallant General, and he has good 



CANADIAN LIFE IN FOLKESTONE. 163 

reason to be proud of his command. The most severe 
military circles have pronounced a eulogy upon the 
splendid achievements of the Canadians, remembering 
that Canada was an industrial country, and that her 
Army was equipped in so short a time. 

Canada came to Shorncliffe in force in February, 
1915, and very soon Folkestone was a suburb of 
Toronto ; within the year, 40,000 men were in training. 

A detachment could leave Shorncliffe early in the 
morning and be in the trenches by lunch-time, though 
the only lunch available would probably have been 
biscuits and bully beef. 

Shorncliffe stretches across the plains along the 
heights by the cliffs. The Camp walked out in its 
extensions through Sandgate, Hythe, Dibgate, and 
Otterpool. It is lovely in spring and summer. The 
district is the border of the Garden of England. Pasture 
land stretches away to the belt of hills, glorious in 
their green ; and on the other side there is the sea, 
with all its haunting charms of adventure and beauty. 
But the camp can be very lonely, especially in winter- 
time, when the bright spots are the Y.M.C.A. Huts. 

A visit to the Camp in the morning would have 
been a surprise to a member of the German High 
Command, who would have seen a great crowd of 
boys stripped to the waist, intent upon learning the 
art of war. By the station at Sandling Junction 
trenches had been dug, and there men learned to 
' ' go over the top. ' ' They practised precision in bomb- 
throwing, and became familiar with hand-grenades. 
They learned how to use observation posts, and to 
detect the approach of the enemy by tapping the 
sound-waves created by his movements. 



164 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

At the foot of the hills a company of men would 
race along to a given objective and dig themselves in. 
It was a competition against time. Above them, 
storming parties would be attacking supposed im- 
pregnable positions, high up, while on the plains, 
hundreds of boys were learning proficiency in the 
handling of the bayonet, which was proverbially 
dreaded by the Germans. Sacks of straw hung from 
poles, with marks in chalk to indicate the vulnerable 
parts of the body. The exercise was to charge on the 
run and ' ' pink ' ' the man in effigy ; so that long 
before the Canadians gave proof of their methods at 
Neuve Chappelle and Vimy, and beyond Arras, they 
had learned to handle a bayonet as a professional 
handles a golf club. It was said that the enemy so 
disliked the bayonet that he would not face bayonet 
attacks ; and the Canadians demonstrated their 
efficiency and their strength to drive the weapon 
home. 

All the work of men in the field was practised at 
Shorn cliff e. His Majesty the King was warm in his 
praise of the smartness of his Canadian troops. When 
Lord Kitchener came upon surprise visits to St. 
Martin's Plain, the men turned out splendidly, and 
old soldiers were loudest in their expressions of admira- 
tion. It seemed impossible that boys from the office 
and the field could acquire the technique of war so 
readily. 

The Camp was self-contained. It provided recrea- 
tion and instruction, and was sufficiently near the town 
to enable thousands of boys to throng the streets 
every night. In the early days, many an amusing 
episode took place by Caesar's Camp. There was a 



CANADIAN LIFE IN FOLKESTONE. 1 65 

tent just by the old road along which Caesar is said 
to have gone with his army to London, when London 
was a little Roman colony. In that tent a concert 
party was delighting a crowded audience. The boys 
had permission to smoke, and the air was very thick. 
Clouds took fantastic shape in the light of the big oil 
lamps. Dr. T. T. Shields, of Jarvis Street, Toronto, 
had arrived unexpectedly, and was announced as 
"a surprise packet from Home, of large size and full 
of good things. ' ' The orator from Jarvis Street had 
a great reception, but found it very difficult to speak 
in such an atmosphere. It seemed as if he were shout- 
ing through a megaphone ; when suddenly the back 
of the tent was blown out, and the air came in from 
the sea. It was a welcome breeze, certainly for Dr. 
Shields. By this time his presence was known, and a 
great crowd assembled outside the tent. The rest 
of the musical items were forgotten, arsd the boys 
listened with delight to a message from Home. One 
never knows how ideal Home may be until one is far 
across the seas. 

Dr. John McNeil, of Toronto, came over for special 
work with the Y.M.C.A. One afternoon he was to 
give an address in Sandgate. The boys of the nth 
came over very tired, after their gruesome practice 
of bayoneting sacks of straw. They filled the old 
Alhambra Music Hall ; it had been converted from its 
old uses ; it was not a good place to speak in. It was 
operated by the Canadian Red Triangle. As a pre- 
liminary to the address, Captain ' ' Peg, ' ' a great boy 
who, like Peter Pan, had never grown up, was leading 
the singing. With John McNeil there were two other 
parsons, fresh from a game of golf ; suddenly ' ' Peg ' ' 



l66 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

announced that ' ' The Ministerial trio will sing the next 
verse of the song, 'Mother Machree. ' " Nothing 
daunted, the three faced the music, and their per- 
formance brought down the house. It was a good 
prelude to the manly appeal of the Toronto Demos- 
thenes. 

There is another story of Dr. McNeil, which may 
not be forgotten. He had preached on Sunday, and 
on the Monday morning was to play a round of golf 
with three others. One of them had been in his 
congregation and enjoyed the sermon. He watched 
the Canadian take his stand to drive the wayward 
white ball. He had thought of an easy victory, 
but when he saw the quality and the length of the 
drive, he said, in his broad Scotch : ' ' Ay, mon, I 
heard you preach yesterday, and it was a fine sermon ; 
but if you could only preach as you can drive, my word, 
you'd be a mighty fine preacher." 

Among the Canadian officers there are many 
remembered in the town for their fine character and 
genial spirits. They were good comrades as well as 
very gallant gentlemen. General Sir Sam Hughes 
had a place of his own, but not less in the esteem of the 
men was General Sir Sam Steele. With his wife and 
daughter he became very familiar to Folkestone 
audiences. He was ever ready to respond to an 
invitation to help a good cause or an individual who 
got into difficulties. It was a beautiful thing to see 
the brave old man sitting in his room on Saturday 
afternoon, listening to the story of some boy who had 
got into difficulty, and had found a sympathetic friend 
in his General. It is not given to many officers in 
command to become the confidant of men of all ranks ; 



CANADIAN LIFE IN FOLKESTONE. 1 67 

but "old Sam Steele" won the hearts of the boys. 
It was a continual grief to him that he was not sent 
overseas ; but the duty of a soldier is to obey orders 
and to serve wherever he is commanded. 

Colonel Smart, who took over the command and 
held it until the close of the Camp, was a businesslike 
soldier. It was difficult to imagine that he had not 
been in the Army all his life. He had the distinction 
of withdrawing the Military Police from the streets 
of Folkestone ; he put his men upon their honour, 
and told them that there would be no picket in town. 
He would depend upon their good sense to behave as 
gentlemen. And they did. The charges for drunken- 
ness were few, and the occasions upon which there was 
any disturbance of the peace were very few indeed. 
By some ill wind a rumour was spread abroad, 
especially in Canada, that the Army in Folkestone was 
' ' going the pace. ' ' Awful tales were told ; but they 
were tales so exaggerated that they bore no resemb- 
lance to the truth. As a matter of fact, charges for 
drunkenness were rather less than 1 per 1,000, and 
before the days of Prohibition there was probably no 
town of any size, even in Canada, that could show so 
clean a record. The Mayor of Folkestone, when the 
present writer was going upon a speaking tour through 
Canada, made a special request, with the sanction and 
endorsement of the Corporation, that the people of 
the Dominion should be told that their boys in Folke- 
stone were as well behaved as they were brave in the 
field. 

Hundreds of boys on Sunday afternoons were guests 
in Folkestone homes, and were more than welcome. 
They endeared themselves to the children, and captured 



168 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

the hearts of the girls so successfully that about 1,100 
Canadian brides went from the district to strengthen 
the tie of Empire across the seas. Many are the stories 
of the wooing that could be told". Let this one suffice. 
A boy from the Land of the Maple Leaf was captivated 
by the charm of a girl serving in a Hut. After a while 
Tommy said to the maid at the coffee urn : ' ' D'you 
sleep here ? " " Oh, no ; I live down by the Church. ' ' 
She spoke in a tone that fired the blood and made a 
man forget whether he was in a hut or in dreamland. 
"D'you go home by yourself?" he enquired. "Of 
course, ' ' she said. ' ' What time do you leave ? ' ' 
' ' When the hut shuts. ' ' As the girl came out of the 
hut she saw Tommy, all eyes. "T'aint right," he 
said, " for a girl like you to go along alone, late at night. 
May I see you home?" "Yes — " and they walked 
along together. ' ' D'you know the new arrangements 
about the separation allowance ? ' ' She shook her 
head and laughed. ' ' It's mighty good ; 25 dollars 
from the Government and 15 from the man. Worth 
thinking about. ' ' She was silent. ' ' Did you ever 
think of getting married ? " he blurted out. She 
shook her head. ' ' Then think of it, ' ' he said. ' ' Forty 
dollars a month is some allowance. You think of 
it, and if you want to get hitched, tell me to-morrow 
night. ' ' They had arrived at the house, and he went 
away all unconscious that he had proposed marriage 
to one of the three beauties of Europe, one of Queen 
Mary's maids of honour. 

One memorable night a little party was going up 
to the camp. The sky was hazy, with banks of grey 
and bars of gold. "Just the sort of night for old 
Fritz to get busy," said the driver. He was a boy 




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CANADIAN LIFE IN FOLKESTONE. l6g 

who had spent two years in France until he got potted. 
He had driven an officer along the banks of the famous 
Canal which had been a death-trap to Canadian 
soldiers. "We don't like that kind of sky," he 
remarked. ' ' You can't see what's in it, and it's light 
enough for flying. ' ' The line of hills seemed further 
in the distance, and the tall poplars silhouetted against 
the drifting banks of white cloud. The roads were 
winding and narrow, and partly hidden by an arch of 
leaves. Then they stretched across hill and plain, 
where the tents were thick and the lights were welcome 
after the darkness. The camp was like a great city, with 
its shops and canteens, cinema theatre, and great huts. 
One of the party alighted with a soloist ; there was 
a crowd of eager boys to bid him welcome. "Good 
old Cameron ! ' ' they called. ' ' What price Bloor 
Street ? ' ' The car went on, carrying a lecturer to 
a hut at the extreme end of the Camp. It was a long, 
narrow building, with a bar across one end, four billiard 
tables, a partition, and a hall. There was a good 
audience, eager to consider some problems of social 
reconstruction. The lecture had proceeded half-way 
when a military policeman called certain men out of 
the hut ; they were not many, but their departure 
created a great deal of uneasiness in the audience. 
Then, without a moment's warning, the electric light 
went out. One could see from the windows that the 
whole camp was in the dark. The animated scene 
of a moment before was blotted out ; the moon was 
somewhere lost behind the clouds. The thrill could 
be felt ; no one moved. Then came the sound all knew : 
it was the warning of immediate danger from aircraft. 
Still the boys sat tight. "What shall we do ?" said 



I70 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

the lecturer. "Shall we get back to the huts, or 
clear and have a look at the show ? " " Can't we 
carry on ? " called a voice from the back, at which there 
was applause. "Can't find a better 'ole than this, 
can yer ? ' ' piped in shrill tones from somewhere near 
the platform. There was more applause, and the 
lecturer went on. It must have been difficult work 
talking in the dark. Suddenly, across the hill, 
clearly seen in the light of the moon, now undraped, 
appeared an aeroplane with the unmistakable marks. 
The searchlights had picked her up ; her bars glistened 
as silver wings, and all about her shrapnel was bursting 
from the anti-aircraft guns. There was a dull thud. 
' ' It ain't a blighty ! ' ' somebody called. The guns 
peppered away, and the burr and the buzz grew more 
distinct. It seemed as if the machine would be brought 
down, but an unlucky breeze shifted the clouds, and 
the enemy had the advantage of oblivion. A success- 
sum of explosions, and then it was over ; the only 
sound was the dying away of the thud of the machine, 
indicating its direction ; it was over the sea. 

Among the most pathetic sights witnessed at Shorn- 
cliffe was the decoration of the graves of those who 
had died far away from home. It was a beautiful 
thought, conceived by Mr. E. Palmer, of Hythe, and 
carried out by Mr. C. G. Molyneux and Mr. Percy 
Greenstreet, with the assistance of a large number of 
very willing helpers. The first ceremony was held 
on June 13th, 1917. The Canadian band played 
while more than 1,500 children from neighbouring 
schools marched past, bearing flowers for the honoured 
dead. The little wooden crosses, with the identification 
of the bodies lying beneath, tell their own tale, and 



CANADIAN LIFE IN FOLKESTONE. 171 

bring mist to the eyes and a choking sensation to the 
throat. The presence of these little children, the 
majority of them clad in white, with their floral 
tributes of affection, will never be forgotten by 
Canadians. The Mayor of Folkestone and his col- 
league the Mayor of Hythe, with the Vicar, the Rev. 
H. G. Dale, and hundreds of visitors, representing 
public bodies, churches and institutions, stood round, 
uncovered, while the ceremony was performed. 

Appropriate words were spoken for those who were 
honoured. 

Colonel C. A. Smart, in broken tones, expressed the 
appreciation of Canada of the ceremony and the 
spirit behind it. He explained that the graves would 
be kept as a bit of Canada in Folkestone. Many of 
the boys whose bodies were lying there had never 
seen France, and others had done their bit and come 
back to hospitals in the districts, where they had died. 
Canadian parents would be bound closer to the Mother 
Country by the action of the little children. 

The number of Canadians in the Folkestone area 
has been given with great variety. The official 
figures present a surprising total. During the first 
year, 40,000 men were stationed in the Camp. From 
1915 to 1916, 45,000 men received training. During 
the two years, 70,000 men in the Shorncliffe area were 
equipped and passed to France. During 1917, the 
approximate number of troops stationed in the Camp 
was 30,000 ; and in the following year, 20,000. At the 
beginning of the present year, 1918-1919, only 10,000 
remained. The number of troops proceeding over- 
seas from the area between Christmas, 1916, and the 
end of the War was 60,000. Canada has contributed 



172 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

to the Overseas Force 550,000 men, and of these 
more than 350,000 have been to France during the 
War. 

The number of Canadians who died in the Shorn-- 
cliffe area, from 1915 to 1919, including deaths from 
wounds, was nearly l,5oo. 

The Canadians have nothing to learn in horseman- 
ship. From early youth they are trained to the 
saddle. Many men in the cavalry regiments ride 
with the ease and skill of cowboys. The Canadian 
Mounted Rifles presented one of the smartest turn- 
outs in the field. A display of horsemanship always 
brought a great crowd to the Camp. The Reserve 
Cavalry raised considerable sums of money by their 
Gymkhanas. Lieutenant Bertran, a very fine horse- 
man, had an adventure in the display in Radnor Park. 
It was in a jumping contest ; the officer was going at 
a smart pace. The horse slipped and rolled over 
heavily, with the rider underneath. It seemed that 
something very serious had happened, but in a few 
moments the Lieutenant was extricated, apparently 
unhurt. His brother officers lifted him up, but he 
broke away, and seizing another saddled horse, 
mounted it and rode in amid the cheers of the boys. 

Tent-pegging, with lances and swords, was very 
popular, and greatly enjoyed by the men. Great fun 
was created on the Camp by the gas-mask exercise. 
Men and horses were masked ; both objected to the 
precautionary appliances, and did not willingly take 
to their use. The men looked more like divers pre- 
paring to go below than soldiers ready to withstand 
an attack. 

Boxing practice became a regular part of the soldier's 



CANADIAN LIFE IN FOLKESTONE. 173 

education, and he took to it with true sportsmanlike 
spirit. In play they toughened their muscles and 
gained an alertness of eye and rapidity of movement 
which stood them in good stead. The fun of the 
practice sometimes led to the real thing, and contests 
not recognised by the authorities. 

The first Canadian Baseball match played in England 
took place in the Cricket Ground in May, 1915. Sir 
Stephen Penfold and Alderman Spurgen took part. 
The game is very popular across the Atlantic, but 
hardly known in the Old Country. It resembles our 
familiar game of ' ' Rounders. ' ' A diamond-shaped 
pattern is marked out on the ground, 90 feet from the 
side. Nine men are in a team ; one side takes the 
field, the other goes in to bat. When the fielders 
are at their points the pitcher stands inside the ground 
near the centre, facing the batsman, whose position 
is at the home base ; the batsman endeavours to 
drive the ball far enough away to allow him to run 
around the bases, which count one on the score. If he 
fails to run all round, he can stop at any base, and wait 
for the next pitch. If the ball touches him when away 
from a base, he is out. The play is less artistic than 
cricket, but it lacks nothing in excitement, especially 
when the spectators, following the trans-Atlantic 
fashion, shout advice to the players, and do not hesitate 
to yell criticisms. 

Athletic competitions and general sports were 
arranged by the Canadian Y.M.C.A. Subscriptions 
were invited to provide prizes. Councillor R. G. 
Wood gave several beautiful silver cups, and the 
response enabled Captain Miller to offer some fine 
trophies, which will go back to the Dominion not only 



174 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

as evidence of the prowess of the victors, but as 
souvenirs of Folkestone. 

Social life was made very homelike by the presence 
of a large number of Canadian women. Many of 
them found occupation in the Hospitals and Canteens, 
where they rendered invaluable assistance. Other 
ladies joined Mrs. Sherbrooke in mothering lonely 
and wounded men, arranging social functions, concert 
parties, and motor drives, and doing the beautiful 
little things which only women with sympathetic 
nsight could devise. 

The Maple Leaf Club began with a little company 
of English women attempting to provide something 
like a Canadian home. Beds, baths, and meals were 
arranged at very reasonable rates. In 1916 the Club 
was taken over by the Canadian Women's Union, 
and worked entirely by ladies from overseas. Its 
popularity is indicated by the fact that in one year 
more than 4,000 men slept under its roof. Arrange- 
ments were made for visiting the various Canadian 
hospitals, and supplying the wards with flowers and 
magazines. Mrs. Charles Nelles was the President, 
and had for her assistants many well-known women. 
Among them was Mrs. Smart, the wife of the G.O.C. 
She added to her work as Red Cross Hospital visitor, 
responsible for several wards in No. n General Hospital, 
that of Vice-President of the Anglo-Canadian Club. 
With her daughter Dorothy, Mrs. Smart was con- 
tinually in evidence, engaged in good works for the 
men. 

The Canadian Club for Women was founded in 
December, 1915. Its object was to welcome the 
wives and relatives of the officers of the Canadian 



CANADIAN LIFE IN FOLKESTONE. I75 

Expeditionary Force then in England, and to unite 
them in friendship with the women of the Motherland. 
It was affiliated to the Victoria League, and had for 
its patrons their Majesties the King and Queen. 
"At homes" were given at Adyar, lent by the Theo- 
sophical Society, every Tuesday evening, during the 
first and second years of the War, and once a month 
until the Armistice. These gatherings enabled the 
residents of Folkestone and the neighbourhood to 
have the pleasure of welcoming and knowing their 
fellow-countrywomen from the Dominion. 

The Hon. Secretary's register contains upwards of 
1,400 names of Canadian ladies, numbers of whom have 
said how greatly these gatherings helped to make 
their stay amongst us pleasant, as it not only gave 
them opportunities of meeting English women, but 
also of discovering each other. 

Captain R. W. Ensor, Canadian Headquarters 
Staff, was most indefatigable in helping to find new 
arrivals. The originator of the idea was Miss Lilian 
Edwards, who, with her usual zeal and energy, soon 
made the institution successful. Miss Edwards left 
the town for an appointment at the War Office, and 
the work devolved upon Mrs. Philips, who had the 
assistance of Lady Steele and afterwards Mrs. Smart, 
Mrs. V. Edwards, and Miss Peachey. The last "At 
home" was made the opportunity of thanking the 
Committee. Colonel Smart, on behalf of the Canadian 
ladies, expressed their deep appreciation of the efforts 
made to strengthen the links that bound the women 
from overseas to their fellow countrywomen in the 
town ; adding that he personally regarded Folkestone 
as a second home. 



I76 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

Many eminent visitors came to the Camp, including 
the Premiers and most of the Members of Parliament, 
and Sir Robert Borden. They were enthusiastic 
over the hospitality shown to their boys. Distin- 
guished Generals came from the War Office and from 
overseas ; they inspected the men, and were not 
stinting in their praise of the work done. The gunners 
gained remarkable proficiency, and fulfilled in the 
field the brilliant promise given in their practice. 
Their achievements were the more creditable as, in 
common with the Eaton Machine Gun Section, the 
men were largely drawn from the stores and the 
schools. 

The intellectual life of the soldiers was not for- 
gotten. The Public Library allowed men on the Camp 
to have the loan of books. Large numbers of soldiers 
used the Reference Department and Reading Rooms 
in the evenings, and found in the Chief Librarian and 
his assistants willing helpers in obtaining the informa- 
tion they required. 

Dr. Tory came over from Alberta University to 
organise the educational work, being carried out by 
the Y.M.C.A., and the Chaplains. His report marked 
a new phase of Army education, and will produce a 
type of soldier hitherto unknown. 

Dr. Tory reported upon the need for educational 
effort, and its value in view of military efficiency. 
He interviewed large numbers of men and officers, 
that he might become acquainted with their outlook. 
As a result, he felt justified in proposing a definite 
educational programme, in which the Universities 
would have prominent place. Principal Tory's report 
is so valuable that we venture upon the following 
extract : 




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CANADIAN LIFE IN FOLKESTONE. 177 

' ' There is no doubt in the minds of the military 
authorities but that such work, if properly done, 
would be of great benefit to the soldiers from 
the point of view of efficiency as soldiers and of 
general morale. And, further, that a great and 
useful service might be done in preparing them 
for the time when they resume the normal duties 
of life again. 

"There is a strong desire on the part of the 
men of the Army, particularly among those who 
had previously been following intellectual occupa- 
tions, to undertake any work that would bring 
them again into connection with the problems 
of civil life. The excitement associated with the 
beginnings of Army service has passed away, 
and the social and civil instincts are again assert- 
ing themselves. A considerable portion of the 
men are not only willing to take advantage of 
opportunities for intellectual improvement, but 
are anxious so to do. This applies not only to 
religious men who have been interested in Bible 
study and corresponding subjects, in association 
with the Y.M.C.A. and Chaplain's service, but to 
those whose thought and interest run entirely 
to ordinary secular occupation. Two illustra- 
tions of the sort of evidence gathered will serve 
to show why I came to this conclusion. 

"I met a group of two hundred men who 
came together after a religious service, on an 
invitation to discuss with me the possibilities 
of their taking advantage of an educational 
scheme in order to prepare them for their life 
at home after the War. As these men had been 



I78 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

at a religious meeting, naturally a large percentage 
of them were men who were thinking in the terms 
of religious effort. Personal inquiry among them 
showed that fifty-seven of them wished to take 
up the study of agriculture, forty had their minds 
turned toward the Christian ministry, thirty to 
get a business education, eighteen to take up 
work of the character done by the Y.M.C.A., 
fifteen the study of practical mechanics, several 
the teaching profession, while the remainder 
simply desired to improve themselves. 

"In order to get information from a more 
representative group of men, a brigade was 
selected representative of Canada as a whole, 
in which there were one battalion from the 
Eastern provinces, two from the Central provinces, 
and one from the Western provinces. An officer 
was appointed to determine what would be their 
attitude toward an educational programme, es- 
pecially for the demobilisation period. Eighteen 
hundred and sixty men were interviewed. Of 
these, thirteen hundred and seventy expressed 
a desire for, and a willingness to participate in, 
an educational programme. A large number of 
them wanted instruction in engineering, an almost 
equal number in agriculture, and a considerable 
number in subjects of the ordinary academic 
type, such as economics and history. ' ' 
The "Khaki College" took practical shape, as the 
"Khaki University of Canada." Its branches soon 
extended to all the Camps in England, and, wherever 
possible, at the back of the lines. Khaki College at 
Vimy Ridge will ever be remembered. An Advisory 



CANADIAN LIFE IN FOLKESTONE. I79 

Board of the Young Men's Christian Association, for 
whom Dr. Tory made the original investigation, sug- 
gested that the Universities should be the instrument 
for developing the work. The principal colleges 
agreed, and Sir Robert Faulkner became Chairman 
of the new body. Dean Adams left McGill to take 
charge of the Headquarters in London, and a full 
programme was worked out, embracing as much of 
a University education as could be given in the Army. 

The difficulties were very considerable, and the cost 
heavy ; but the resources were more than sufficient, 
and large numbers of students have been able to 
continue advanced work, which will be accepted by 
the examination Board at its full value. The study 
of Agriculture has been carried out in a way that would 
have seemed impossible to the stereotyped organisation 
dealing with military education. Medical students 
have been helped, and those who looked to the study 
and the practice of the Law encouraged and enabled 
to continue their work. Thousands of men have taken 
elementary courses, while shorthand, book-keeping, 
and typewriting have been very popular. 

The last step in the development of the Khaki 
College was the establishment of a bureau of informa- 
tion, where particulars could be obtained concerning 
the Government's plans for assistance of men returning- 
overseas. Officers have been engaged tabulating; 
replies to all kinds of questions, so that a man need 
have no difficulty in knowing exactly what help he 
might reckon upon from the Government when he 
was demobilised. 

Canadian airmen delighted to come to Folkestone. 
Their main quarters were in another camp, but large 



l80 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

numbers of them were at Lydd and Capel, and were 
frequently in the town. Canada's share in the air 
was was between 13,000 and 14,000 men. Of these, 
1,239 officers had been transferred from the Canadian 
Forces to the Imperial Air Force, and more than 4,000 
fully trained officers were sent direct from Canada. 

Several Canadian regiments, following the example 
of the West Kents, deposited their colours in Canter- 
bury Cathedral. It was a lovely sight to see the boys 
lined in the butter market by the statue of Marlowe, 
the poet, looking up at St. George's Gate, that old 
monument that was very old long before Agincourt 
was won, that echoed with the popular rejoicing at 
the news of the defeat of the Armada, and in whose 
shadow men breathed more freely after Waterloo. As 
the companies passed into the Cathedral they were 
greatly impressed with the charm of the building ; 
the grey towers that have stood four-square to all 
the winds that blew for nearly a thousand years ; 
the choir, in which boys lift up their fresh, young 
voices as boys did eight hundred years ago. The 
Cathedral is full of monuments to the memory of 
those who have given their lives in sacrifice to their 
country. It is fitting that in the home where the 
greatest sacrifice of all is remembered there should be 
the banners of those who have gone forth ready to 
make the greatest sacrifice within their power, for a 
cause, a sentiment, an intangible something that 
has ever been a beckoning hand to heroes. The 
authorities received the flags and promised to keep 
them in safety. Then the men knelt in prayer : a 
moment of tense silence before the National Anthem 
rang out as a challenge to our foes. 



CANADIAN LIFE IN FOLKESTONE. l8l 

Canadian life in Folkestone was under great obliga- 
tions to the Chaplains ; the representatives of the 
Churches of the Dominions were, with few exceptions, 
able and devoted men. They enriched the life of the 
camp by their presence, and did far more than it is 
possible to chronicle. Their tasks were varied and 
often largely shaped by their particular gifts. In 
addition to the regular church parades on Sunday, 
and devotional meetings during the week, the Padre 
came into close personal contact with officers and men. 
They had unique opportunities for influencing the 
lives of those committed to their spiritual care. Many 
a boy in difficulty found deliverance and guidance 
through the Padre. 

The men were living under strange conditions. Life 
in Camp, thousands of miles away from home, was 
abnormal, and offered peculiar temptations. Men, 
feeling terribly lonely and hungry for companionship, 
with plenty of leisure time in a town of strangers, 
were confronted by attractions never experienced in 
their Homeland. They might easily have slipped 
into undesirable ways, and fallen victims to the Camp 
followers and to the worst phases of English social 
life, but for the good influences of the Chaplains 
and the attractions of the Hut. 

The Padres organised many useful agencies for 
different types of men. From the earliest days some 
of them conducted classes for students who desired 
at least to keep in touch with their studies. The work 
was necessarily informal. During the summer classes 
were held under the friendly shade of the trees. It 
was not uncommon to find, in the glory of the sunset 
over the hills a group of undergraduates from McGill, 



l82 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

Queen's, or McMaster, studying the Greek verbs or 
difficult constructions in the Classics. 

The Chaplains arranged for courses of popular 
lectures by those in their own ranks who had been 
engaged in College work, and called to their assistance 
local Ministers, who gave travel talks, conducted 
conferences, and delivered lectures on various subjects. 
They collected books and magazines for Hospital 
libraries and arranged to take men on short leave to 
see the places of historic interest. 

The right kind of Chaplain had a great field of use- 
fulness, and the Canadian Churches sent many of their 
most gifted Ministers to serve the troops. They 
were wise in their action, and their sacrifices will be 
more than repaid by the enrichment of the Chaplains 
themselves, and the increased interest in the Churches 
which will be felt among the men. It is difficult to do 
justice to the Chaplains' work and devotion. Not a 
few of them entered largely into the religious activities 
of the town, and were held in honour by the local 
Churches. 

Colonel J. H. McDonald, C.B.E., was among the 
first to establish a record for devoted service. Keen 
in intellect, sound in judgment, ever ready to lend a 
helping hand, and always accessible, he became very 
popular among the boys. After serving in France, he 
returned to England to become Deputy-Director of 
the Chaplaincy Department ; afterwards his visits 
to the Camp were all too few. 

It is not possible to record even the names of all 
those who endeared themselves to the men and 
became popular among the civilians. Lieut. -Colonel 
Pringle made a great reputation for valour on the field 



CANADIAN LIFE IN FOLKESTONE. 1 83 

of battle and gracious ministry in the Camp. Major 
Gordon found his fame had preceded him. Those 
who knew ' ' Ralph Connor, ' ' author of ' ' Sky Pilot ' ' 
and "Black Rock," crowded the local Churches 
when he was announced to preach, just as eagerly as 
the soldiers flocked to his services on the Camp. 
Colonel Armond and Bishop Fallon were welcome 
visitors. The names of Captain Porter, Major A. G. 
Wells, Professor Mackintosh, Bishop White, and 
Bishop de Pencier will long be remembered, while 
the Senior Chaplain, Major T. A. Wilson, will never 
be forgotten. They were ever ready to serve the 
men, and spared not themselves in the effort to make 
religion a vital force in the lives of their countrymen. 
Canada owes a greater debt than she can ever repay 
to the Chaplains who came overseas. 

Mr. W. Glanfield, "Felix" of the facile pen, was 
present at a Canadian parade service, and has given 
his impressions : 

"There must have been 2,000 men, all Canadians, 
present at the service under the shadow of Caesar's 
Camp. The Chaplain, assisted by Captain Beatty, 
conducted the service. 'Men of the Brigade, pay 
attention to Divine Service,' called the Brigadier- 
General, who stood apart from the rest of the officers. 
He saluted the Chaplain, and the salute was returned. 
The hymn, 

'Holy, Holy, Holy! Lord God Almighty, 
Early in the morning our song shall rise to Thee, ' 
was announced, and sung with great heartiness. I 
have heard the verses rendered in little Bethels and 
stately Churches, but they never sounded so impressive 
as that morning under the hill. 



184 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

"After the recital of the Psalms and the reading 
of the Lesson, the Brigadier-General blew a whistle, 
and all the boys thereupon sat down in companies 
on the grass ; some lay at full-length, in a kind of 
go-as-you-please posture. Another hymn, 

'Through the night of doubt and sorrow,' 
and then Captain Beatty stepped forward and gave 
a stirring address to the boys, as they were lying in 
the meadow. It could hardly be called a sermon, 
but rather ' A Talk Between Ourselves. ' The Padre 
dwelt with eloquence upon the meaning of real friend- 
ship : friendship, as he said, for which a man at a 
pinch would give his life. That was both loyalty 
and friendship. ' Greater love hath no man than this, 
that he would lay down his life for his friend.' In 
ringing tones the khaki-clad orator described patriotism 
— the response to a cause greater than the individual. 
He referred to Florence Nightingale, and drew lessons 
from the fall of Warsaw. With dramatic power, he 
described the reasons that brought Canada to England. 
The cause of the Empire was greater than the claims 
of the individual. The Call came to them, and they 
answered, some of them hardly knowing why. Yet 
they were asked by God Almighty to fight for Free- 
dom and men and women ; to fight for the Empire, 
for the Freedom of black as well as white ; to fight 
for the body and soul. They were asked to fight for 
the realisation of the world. The earth shall be the 
kingdom of this world, and of His Christ ; and this 
could never be while there existed military despotism. 
'Boys,' he concluded, 'be worthy of the great 
cause, and God bless you.' 

The whistle blew again ; the men were instantly 




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CANADIAN LIFE IN FOLKESTONE. 185 

on their feet and at attention. The morning air 
resounded with the hymn, 

' Fight the good fight with all thy might ; ' 

then the Blessing, and the Service was over. It was 
a magnificent spectacle to watch these Canadians. 
They have taught many of us a much-needed lesson 
in patriotism and loyalty. They have lifted, as it 
were, the curtain from the great Dominion across the 
sea, and we have seen the reality of Empire. Our 
hearts go out to them." 

In the years to come pilgrims from Canada will 
find their way to Folkestone, and many Folkestone 
people will make the journey across the seas. In 
the hearts of all there will be treasured memories of 
friendships formed during the War, and in Folkestone, 
and in many a Dominion city, stories will be told of 
the wonderful days when the boys from the Maple Leaf 
Land were on the fringe of the sea in the Garden of 
England, pioneers of the mighty host that went to 
France to win Freedom for civilization. 



CHAPTER X. 

THE CROSS-CHANNEL SERVICE. 
n Y Rear-Admiral Yelverton and the Editor. 

The great Naval Base at Dover was not completed 
before the outbreak of war. It was hurried forward 
with all possible expedition, and proved of inestimable 
value, not only to the South East Coast, but to the 
whole country. The sea traffic at Folkestone was 
limited by the absence of a deep-water harbour, but 
its volume was far greater than the public supposed. 
Those who watched it day by day were amazed by 
its rapid development, and the skilful way in which 
it was handled. Folkestone Harbour soon became 
one of the vital strategic positions in the War. 

The enormous increase in passenger traffic may 
be gathered from the significant fact that the Officer 
of Health, Dr. Yunge-Bateman, from August 26th to 
December 31st, 1914, inspected 185,572 persons at 
the Harbour. In 1915, 260,674 passengers were 
inspected, and 4,935 up to March, 1916, when the 
work ceased. 

The Embarkation Department, which was charged 
with great responsibility, began in the early days 
of the war. Colonel Aytoun and Lieut. -Col. L. H. 
Noblett were sent down to the port to prevent officers 
going across to France with civilians. Men who 
were turned down for duty in the reserve of their 
battalion at home were very sore, and determined 



THE CROSS-CHANNEL SERVICE. 1 87 

to get across to join their regiment in the fighting 
line. Many of them succeeded and saw considerable 
service before it was discovered that they were supposed 
to be in home camps. They adopted all sorts of 
devices to get past the authorities at Dover Harbour. 
One man who was stopped with the question, "Are 
you a British Officer ? ' ' replied, ' ' Yes. ' ' Much to 
his chagrin, ' ' What regiment ? ' ' With a wink he 
answered, "The Italian Guards." He was passed 
through. A bright-eyed boy, obviously anxious about 
getting on board the boat, was met with the question, 
"Are you an officer?" With a /ery red face he 
replied, ' ' No, but I hope to be. ' ' The Embarkation 
Department grew enormously, though in the first 
months of the War Folkestone seemed to be 
overlooked for military purposes. 

The story of the rescue of 2,200 lives in little more 
than half-an-hour by the steamer "Queen," under 
Captain Carey, will live in the annals of heroic deeds. 
A pressman on board related his experiences to the 
' ' Daily Chronicle. " "I and two French children were 
sitting aft upon the starboard side of the 'Queen' 
watching the coast-line disappear. We were all very 
cheery, if the truth be told, at our escape from the 
racking atmosphere of the area of the War. We 
were making a hesitating return to easy laughter, when 
the first laugh was abruptly choked. There was a 
stir amidships. Three members of an American Red 
Cross Contingent had passed their binoculars to a 
couple of British officers, who were peering at a black 
hull which lay ahead. A King's Messenger stood 
apart and rather perplexed. And now the men 
had shot up to the upper deck and were loosening 



188 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

the ship's boats in their davits. She was the Amiral 
Ganteaume, of Calais, and she was Hying signals of 
distress. Off her lay a fishing smack, and now a 
couple of French torpedo boats raced with us to get 
alongside. At first there was a talk of taking the 
Amiral Ganteaume in tow back to France. Then it 
was decided that the refugees must come aboard. 
A tidy sea was by this time breaking on her. Small 
boats were impossible, and there was nothing for it but 
to stand alongside and let them swarm upon us. The 
Red Cross men and I persuaded all our women to 
get below, all save one, who worked like a heroine, 
catching flying babies and tugging at hefty infantrymen 
of the line. Captain Carey brought us round to the 
lee side of the sinking ship. The two torpedo boats 
and the tiny smack hovered around us. The refugees 
cheered. We crunched past her bows, and a small 
boat by the side of the doomed steamer was almost 
squashed between us. The side of the ' Queen ' touched 
the sinking ship. The refugees leapt at us by the 
score. We helped them aboard. The Red Cross 
men and an officer and I cleared a path to the com- 
panion way to get them below to make room for the 
mass that pressed on. Some were so fear-stricken 
that they had to be led to the companion way. Others, 
those who had been in the trenches, were quiet, and 
helped to clear the decks. Mothers tossed their 
babies to us, and were pulled over themselves. Some 
were jambed between the heaving ships. Others, 
half-dressed for swimming, took flying leaps at us. 
The last of the Belgians was got aboard. He was a 
soldier of the 8th Regiment of the Line. The news — 
unfortunately not true — flashed round that all were 



THE CROSS-CHANNEL SERVICE. 189 

saved. There never was a louder cheer. 'Vive 
l'Angleterre ! L'Angleterre est brave ! ' A second 
cheer echoed on the first as the captain and six of his 
men were seen standing on the bridge of the smitten 
ship. We left them with the fishing smack lying 
by to take them off. ' ' 

The "Queen" landed her cargo of humanity on 
the lee side of the pier. It was a terrible spectacle. 
There was an appalling gale of wind and rain. The 
seas were sweeping with such force over the pier that 
one heavy railway coach laden with baggage was 
completely overturned. The survivors of the torpedoed 
boat were drenched to the skin. Many were starving 
and parched with thirst. Among the wounded 
soldiers none had received attention since they left 
the field of battle. They were brought on to the 
harbour by special constables, surgeons, and nurses 
gathered from local hospitals. 

The specials, men who came to the harbour on 
duty after they had finished their day's work, are 
worthy of the highest praise. They toiled with the 
ambulance men all through the night ministering to 
the wants of the refugees. 

The ladies supplying refreshments on the harbour 
under the direction of Mrs. Spens, the Misses Jeffery, 
and the Committee of the Belgian Refugees Fund, 
contrived that not a single passenger landed by mail 
boats, collier, tramp, or smack left the pier without 
an offer of food and tea or coffee. 

There was not sufficient space alongside the quays 
for the boats to land all the wounded who were 
brought to the harbour in the early days of the War, 
and while some vessels were compelled to remain 



I90 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

outside the harbour still tossed by the waves, 
others tried to make for other ports. Some heavily 
laden steamers were re-signalled to Dover, only to 
be forced to face the storm again and return to 
Folkestone. Dover was already full and unable to 
deal with the increase. At that time the Harbour 
Station at Dover was still unfinished, and there were 
then no sidings for extra trains had they been available. 
Mr. Bennett Goldney telegraphed to the War Office, 
and the fullest assistance was given. Sir Alfred 
Keogh not only allowed an absolutely free hand to 
those in authority upon the spot, but he did every- 
thing possible to ensure that local effort should be 
backed up by all that expenditure and skill could 
improvise, both at the War Office and locally. 

It was a time for immediate action. There was no 
possibility of postponement. Throughout the night 
and far into the next day the boats were brought 
alongside, and soon, not only the quays and platforms, 
but the permanent way itself was entirely taken up 
by the hundreds of stretchers with their brave burdens, 
which were unceasingly transferred by willing hands 
from the ships to the pier. 

The railway was already blocked with the downward 
traffic. It was impossible to get more trains away. 
Wounded men and refugees waited their turns, or 
found shelter in the immediate neighbourhood. What 
to do with the wounded was a serious problem. Many 
of them were holding on to life by a brittle thread ; 
their only chance was immediate attention. It was 
decided to put them under local care. The hospitals 
received as many as possible, and hotels were re- 
quisitioned. 400 patients were sent to the Metropole ; 



THE CROSS-CHANNEL SERVICE. 191 

250 were conveyed to the Imperial Hotel at Hythe ; 
400 of the lighter cases, though many of these turned 
out to be extremely serious, were lodged in the Winter 
Gardens of the Pavilion Hotel. The Skating Rink 
and adjoining buildings were filled with sitting-up 
cases. 

The War Office took prompt action. There was 
nothing of the policy of dilly-dally. Within two 
hours of the arrival of the wounded men at the 
Metropole Hotel, Sir Wilmot Herringham, with a 
fully qualified staff of surgeons and nurses, arrived 
from London to change the hotel into a temporary 
hospital and to do anything and everything possible 
to alleviate the sufferings of the wounded men. 

At the far end of the pier was a buffet open to all 
men in uniform. The refreshments provided were 
gratuitous, and literally some million cups of tea and 
coffee, buns and sandwiches were gratefully received 
by men from all parts of the Empire. The establish- 
ment was run by Miss F. A. Jeffery, Miss M. A. Jeffery, 
and Mrs. Napier Sturt. They received substantial 
financial support from their personal friends and other 
ladies. They were enabled to carry on through 
the whole period of the war one of the best agencies in 
the area. Mrs. Napier Sturt conceived a happy idea of 
keeping a visitors book, so that any who wished 
might sign their names. The book ran into 
a considerable number of volumes. Miss Jeffery 
obtained autographs of the most notable personalities 
in the war : the Prime Ministers of Allied countries, 
Marshal Foch and Sir Douglas Haig, and royal 
personages of various lands. Mr. Lloyd George 
concealed his inveterate dislike to giving autographs, 



192 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

and readily signed his name upon several occasions. 
Mrs. Harland and other ladies worked behind the 
counter and helped to brighten the journey for 
the men who were crossing the Channel. 

The principal sea work other than the transport 
of troops, mails, and war materials was the important 
campaign to counteract the subtle and murderous 
submarine activity of the enemy. The first device 
was an ingenious anti-submarine net which was 
constructed from the Harbour right across the Channel 
to the French coast. There was an opening about 
two miles from the Pier-head called the Folkestone 
Gate, which was marked by two light vessels. This 
triumph of engineering skill served its purpose and 
kept the town safe. Submarines venturing too near 
the coast did not return, and those in charge of the 
net smiled at their catch. 

The extreme difficulty of upkeep and improved 
net cutters on the submarines caused the net to be 
abandoned, and a deep mine -field was instituted in 
its place. There was a double chain of lightships 
carrying searchlights. The shore lights for this 
purpose were mounted on the extremity of the Pier. 
Off the Warren there was a large observation mine- 
field, and in this at least one German submarine was 
destroyed in the first year. Several of the crew were 
taken prisoners and brought ashore. The deep mine- 
field across the Channel was known to be the burial 
place of more than thirty German submarines. While 
the critics corfiplained that nothing had been done 
to destroy the submarine menace, the Naval Authorities 
at the Harbour must have smiled as the news came 
in of enemy craft that had gone down to return no 
more. 




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Mr. Lloyd George Leaving Folkestone for 
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Photo] [Halksworth Wheeler. 

General Botha and other Delegates 
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THE CROSS-CHANNEL SERVICE. I93 

The anti-aircraft guns gave a lively salute to ad- 
venturous raiders. In December, 1917, the men had 
the grim satisfaction of bringing down a huge Gotha 
just off the Pier. The monster fell into the sea. Two 
of her crew were rescued and brought ashore. 
Our men did not follow the German plan of firing 
upon their helpless enemies. They saved their lives 
in the old British way. 

The senior Naval Officers and Competent Naval 
Authorities of the Port and Coast of Dungeness were 
Captain Pennant Lloyd, who died in 191 6, a very 
gallant gentleman ; and Rear- Admiral B. J. D. 
Yelverton, C.B., who was installed in September, 1916. 
The Admiral was formerly in command of H.M.S; 
Suffolk. 

It is a fine tribute to those in command that during 
the whole period of the war the only ship from Folke- 
stone lost by direct enemy attack was the old S.E.R. 
transport "Queen." She was the first turbine- 
driven ship to be used in the service, and two years 
before, under Captain Carey, rescued the refugees 
and passengers from the torpedoed Amiral Ganteaume. 
The ' ' Queen ' ' was caught by accident in the darkness 
of the night in mid-Channel by a German raiding 
flotilla. The crew got away. Fortunately, the ship 
was returning empty. There were romantic stories 
of one of the King's Messengers escaping disguised 
as a stoker. The German Wireless sent out news to 
America of their great naval victory in the English 
Channel. Had the flotilla plucked up courage to 
approach the coast, it would not have returned to 
Zeebrugge afterwards to be caught as a rat in a trap 
by Sir Roger Keyes. The Admiralty issued the 
following announcement : 



194 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

"During last night the enemy attempted a raid 
with ten destroyers on our Cross-Channel Transport 
Service. ' ' 

' ' The attempt failed. One transport, the ' Queen, ' 
was sunk. The whole of her crew were saved. Two 
of the enemy destroyers were sunk and the rest driven 
off. 

"His Majesty's torpedo boat destroyer 'Flirt,' 
Lieutenant R. P. Kellet, R.N., is missing, and it is 
feared she may be lost. Nine of the crew have been 
saved. 

"His Majesty's torpedo boat destroyer 'Nubian,' 
Commander Montague Bernard, R.N., was disabled 
and taken in tow, but owing to the bad weather the 
tow parted and she has been grounded. ' ' 

Among the many wonderful triumphs of engineering 
skill were the naval salvage operations. Perhaps the 
most remarkable was achieved in the Folkestone 
Harbour. The "Onward," one of the most popular 
cross-channel boats, was used as a troopship. She 
was by the quay waiting for her human cargo in the 
morning, when suddenly great tongues of flame leapt 
up from the saloon, illuminating the sea for miles 
around. Experts traced the fire to a thermit bomb 
hidden among life belts. 

The Authorities acted quickly. Sea-cocks were 
opened at considerable risk, and the water poured into 
her. The boat settled down lower and lower until 
she turned over upon her side and sank. The flames 
were quenched in a terrific hiss. The ship lay under 
water for nearly a month while divers worked to 
cut away the mast and funnels, and all of weight that 
could be removed was taken out. Tripods of enormous 



THE CROSS-CHANNEL SERVICE. 195 

baulks of timber were fixed, and lifting craft came 
near. Steel cables were attached to the up-side 
of the hull, carried down the quay-ward side of the 
ship and up the sea-ward side to the lifters. More 
cables were fixed and carried over the tripods to five 
locomotives. Then the signal was given, and a miracle 
of science happened. The locomotives slowly steamed 
on till the cables were strained. The engines snorted 
and pulled in their fight with the dead weight of 
water until the old ship was slowly hauled into position 
and the water pumped out and the ' ' Onward ' ' again 
rode the waves. 

The port of Folkestone was opened for transport 
of troops about the end of March, 1915, when the 
Authorities discovered that it was very much the 
quicker route. After that date a steady flow of troops 
to and from France was maintained. On an average 
six ships, not including cargo ships and lighters, 
sailed daily all through the war with reinforcements 
and leave men. Occasionally wounded and German 
prisoners were brought to Folkestone by transport. 
The wonder is how the men were carried across. 
More than thirty ships made up the average, exclusive 
of lighters and small craft, in the daily routes to 
Calais, Boulogne, Dunkirk, and other French ports. 

All the coaling and maintenance of these ships had 
to be done on the English side of the Channel, and 
added enormously to the incessant work carried out 
at Folkestone. The port was never intended to cope 
with such extensive traffic, or to receive large vessels. 
The Authorities must have had many anxious moments 
when considering the problem of getting men over 
with rapidity and safety. 



I96 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

Great credit is due to all concerned that upwards 
of ten million men were sent across the Channel 
without the loss of a single life in transit. Alterations 
in routes and times of sailing were constant, being 
necessitated by the number of enemy submarines 
and the change of the mine-fields in the close vicinity 
of the routes, but, fortunately, owing to the seaman- 
ship of the local men, the vigilance of the Dover 
Patrol, especially of the destroyers escorting all ships, 
the frequent attempts to interrupt the transportation 
of troops were always frustrated. 

During 1917 and 1918 very large numbers of men 
were carried across the Channel, amounting ap- 
proximately to nearly 3,000,500 in 1917 and 2,986,000 
in 1918. Statistics of the tonnage carried for the 
Government read like a fairy tale. During the advance 
of the enemy on the Channel ports in the dark days 
of April, 1918, no less than 11,000 men per day were 
transported to France as reinforcements, and for 
weeks the average number totalled 120,000. A 
wonderful record when one considers the limited 
accommodation at the Folkestone Pier. 

The Naval Authorities at the Harbour included Com- 
mander A. G. Alston, R.N., who soon after the out- 
break of war was transferred to another port. He 
was followed by Commander G. F. Woodall, R.N., 
who died at Folkestone in September, 1916. Com- 
mander H. F. Perfect, R.N., remained until November, 
1916, and was followed by Commander J. T. Blake, 
R.N., who became Marine Superintendent of the 
S.E. and C.R. Co., and was succeeded by Commander 
F. C. Richardson, R.N.V.R. In connection with 
this part of the work great praise is due to the captains 



THE CROSS-CHANNEL SERVICE. 197 

and the crews of the transport for their seamanlike 
handling of the ships, and the consequent absence 
of any serious accidents in collision, under the most 
unfavourable conditions, arising out of the War. 

In the second year of the war someone at the 
Admiralty had the brilliant idea that the vessels 
would run with greater safety at night than by day. 
Those acquainted with the conditions were quite 
convinced to the contrary, but under pressure the 
officers and crews loyally carried out the instructions 
they knew to be unwise, with the result that the 
' ' Victoria ' ' had a very narrow escape from destruction. 
After this experience the practice of day-sailings 
was reverted to. 

The South Eastern Company not only carried a 
record tonnage far beyond anything regarded as 
within the region of possibility, but Mr. C. Sheath and 
his colleagues literally achieved the impossible. From 
the commencement of the war to February, 19 19, 
there were conveyed from Folkestone Harbour 
in addition to passengers, 3,416 motor cars ; 192,468 
tons of the Company's traffic ; nearly 91,000 tons of 
Government stores ; 11,641 tons of material for Red 
Cross Societies ; 383,098 mails and parcel post ; and 
63,985 tons for Expeditionary Force Canteens ; 
making a total tonnage, outwards and inwards, of 
742,188. The tonnage of coal supplied to troops and 
ambulance transports by the shore staffs at Folkestone 
and Dover reached the amazing figure of 402,968 ; 
while the number of lives saved by the Company's 
steamers was not less than 3,203. The value of 
stores purchased, inspected, and despatched by the 
Managing Committee of the Company on behalf 



I98 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

of the War Office to the Armies in France, Egypt, 
Mesopotamia, Salonika, and Russia was £1,791,338. 

From the commencement of hostilities to the 
signing of the Peace, the numbers embarking and 
landing at Folkestone Harbour, were : British officers 
and men, 9,253,652 ; Allied officers and men, 537,523 ; 
civilians engaged in Red Cross and other war work, 
846,919 ; German prisoners of war, 3,592 ; making 
the wonderful total of 10,641,686. 

The Compa ny received the thanks of Field-Marshal 
Sir Douglas Haig and the War Office. 



CHAPTER XI. 

PROVIDING SILVER BULLETS. 

By The Editor. 

Folkestone, in common with all the towns in the 
country, responded to the call for Silver Bullets. The 
amount of money raised for war purposes was a great 
surprise to the most optimistic. The gratifying 
result was attributable to the energy of the Mayor 
and the various Committees, the generosity of the 
Borough Member, and, most of all, the high spirit 
of patriotism among the people. In recording the 
services of the Mayor it may be noted that Sir Stephen 
Penfold held office at the outbreak of war, and 
by the election of the Council remained Mayor through 
the five memorable years that followed. At the 
commencement of hostilities Alderman Penfold, as 
he was then, devoted practically the whole of his time 
and energy to public work. He might very well have 
claimed exemption ; he was at the eventide and had 
served the community through a long series of years ; 
but he was a tireless worker, and continued in office 
with surprising tenacity. As a recognition of his 
services to Belgian refugees, King Albert conferred 
upon him one of the highest orders of Belgium. His 
Majesty King George, in 1915, honoured him with 
the Order of Knighthood, in recognition of his long 
public services and the part which the town had 
played in the early days of the War. 



200 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

The Mayor had the invaluable assistance of Lady 
Penfold and his daughter, in the many beneficent 
works he attempted. Lady Penfold and Miss Queenie 
Penfold arranged festivities for soldiers' wives and 
children, and gladdened thousands of little people by 
their hospitality. Their efforts in organising flag 
days and collections for charities are well known. 
Nearly £50,000 has been collected for national organ- 
isations. Many residents rendered assistance, par- 
ticularly Mr. A. E. Nichols, the Borough Surveyor, and 
Mr. F. Scarborough, of the National Provincial Bank. 

The Deputy- Mayor (Alderman G. Spurgen, J. P.) was 
a great support to Sir Stephen during the strenuous 
years. Mr. Spurgen was always ready to undertake 
duties in the Council Chamber or at the Harbour, 
and did much to lighten the burdens of his chief. 

When Sir Stephen Penfold received his knighthood 
a local committee was formed to give expression to 
the high regard in which he and Lady Penfold were 
held. Alderman Hall and Mr. Carlile acted as Hon. 
Secretaries, and collected a considerable sum of money. 
A presentation was made in the form of a handsome 
set of silver, jewellery for Lady Penfold, and a cheque. 
Mr. Lewis Coward, the learned Recorder, who himself 
was knighted at a later period, expressed the sentiments 
of the town in an eloquent speech. 

The Town Hall was used as a canteen for soldiers 
from July, 1915, to March, 1919. Refreshments 
were served at standardised prices. The venture was 
so successful that five per cent, of the gross takings 
was given to the Mayor, acting for the Finance Com- 
mittee. This amounted to the handsome sum of 
£ I »533 x s. 7d. £750 was paid to the Corporation as 
rent for the Town Hall ; the remainder being contri- 
buted to various charitable efforts. 



PROVIDING SILVER BULLETS. 201 

Mr. A. F. Kidson, the Town Clerk devoted much 
time and energy to voluntary war work, and received 
the distinction of O.B.E. in recognition of his 
valuable services. The Borough Treasurer, Mr. W. H. 
Routly and a great number of private residents 
entered into the local efforts with enthusiasm. The 
war work was far greater than was supposed. One 
society alone turned out 34,600 garments for troops 
and prisoners of war, and in addition the members 
made up ioolbs. of wool work. 

The collection of waste paper realised a respectable 
sum. 

The War Workers' Guild, organised by Mrs. Ames, 
sent out nearly 100,000 dressings and garments 
required by men in hospitals ; bandages, slippers, 
pillows, bed-pads, and a thousand-and-one little 
things that make for comfort were manipulated by 
the busy fingers of the women. Nearly 50,000 bandages 
and dressings were sent to the American Red Cross 
Society. The Hospital and Nursing Committee, with 
Dr. W. J. Tyson, J.P., as Chairman, and Mr. G. W. 
Haines as Secretary, did excellent pioneer work, 
particularly in creating interest and securing workers 
from Folkestone and Hythe. 

The War Savings Committee began operations in 
October, 1916, with Mr. W. H. Routly, F.S.A.A., as 
Hon. Secretary. Later Mr. G. E. Wythe was appoin- 
ted Joint Hon. Secretary, and on his resignation Major 
J. Compton took over the work. Mr. H. J. Gummer, 
Deputy Borough Treasurer, was Hon. Treasurer. 

A campaign was instituted, including the distribu- 
tion of literature, cinema exhibitions, personal can- 
vassing and public meetings. As a result of these 
lctivities, forty-eight local War Savings Associations 
were formed. 



202 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

When the Government issued its big Five Per Cent. 
War Loan, the Local Committee made a great effort to 
reach all classes and interests in the town. Public 
meetings were held, with the result that about £700,000 
was subscribed. 

Almost immediately the War Loan was completed 
the Committee entered upon a campaign in support 
of the Government's policy of food economy. 
Voluntary rationing became popular ; food demon- 
strations were given at the Domestic Centre and at 
the Town Hall. Many house-keepers learned some- 
thing more of the art of economical cookery and 
fruit -preserving. During what was known as Business 
Men's Week a further effort was made to secure 
investors in War Bonds. Mr. Rudyard Kipling 
delivered an address at the Pleasure Gardens Theatre, 
which was printed and circulated throughout the 
country gratuitously by Messrs. W. H. Smith and 
Sons. The local result was the investment of 
£54,000. War Weapons Week was inaugurated by 
a strenuous campaign, largely assisted by Sir Philip 
Sassoon. Over £200,000 was invested in War Bonds. 
The fine work of the War Savings Committee was 
recognised by the offer of a tank as a memorial. 
Folkestone also had the opportunity to possess one of 
the German Gothas, but there was a strong feeling 
that it was undesirable to perpetuate the memory of 
the air raid. Among those who rendered conspic- 
uous services may be mentioned Mr. Henry Brooke, 
Mr. Councillor Forsyth, Mr. H. W. Wheeler, Mr. G. 
E. Wythe, Mr. B. J. Duncan Walker, Mr. F. A. 
Aldridge, Mr. Eric Condy, and Major Compton. 

This record would not be complete without a reference 



PROVIDING SILVER BULLETS. 203 

to the part played by Folkestone schools, both public 
and private. It is a striking testimony, not only to 
the willingness of the little folk to serve, but also to 
the training which they have received. There was 
scarcely a school that did not become a dispersal 
depot for comforts for the troops, and many a class- 
room became a busy hive of industry, under a teacher's 
charge. Throughout the district of Hythe, Sandgate, 
and Folkestone, the schools did exceptionally well 
in war savings. Right from the commencement of 
hostilities the movement continued to progress, first 
by saving by 6d. stamps, and later by direct associ- 
ation with the National Committee. Many a tiny tot 
contributed a weekly saving of a few pence, prompted 
by the hope and prayer that the War would end 
sooner, or that Daddy would come back earlier. Grace 
Hill School has the honour of reaching the highest 
sum invested by any Council School in Kent. Over 
£10,600 was the magnificent total. 

The Prince of Wales's Commmittee was inaugurated 
for the relief of distress anticipated among the 
industrial classes. The local administration of the 
Fund was in the hands of a Committee, under the 
auspices of the Local Government Board. The 
first Secretary was Mr. R. J. Linton, J.P., who was 
succeeded by Mr. E. T. Ward, J. P. Happily there was 
no industrial distress in Folkestone as a consequence 
of the War, and until the autumn of 191 7 the Committee 
had to deal with very few applications for assistance. 
At that period, owing mainly to the air raid, the 
town had lost many visitors, and applications for 
assistance by apartment house keepers began to be 
made. Help in the form of weekly money grants on 



204 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

a prescribed scale, was given to 43 applicants, 
the funds being furnished by the Local Government 
Board. The action of the Committee was restricted 
to the relief of civilian distress ; the dependents 
of soldiers and sailors being assisted by another 
Committee. Mr. J. Andrew, Clerk to the Magistrates, 
was Secretary to the Committee. He had the assist- 
ance of the Rev. H. Ep worth Thompson, J. P. 

The Prisoners of War Fund was inaugurated by Mrs. 
Blair and Mr. Councillor Harrison, J. P., in Folkestone, 
and by the Mayor at Hythe. Parcels of food and 
comforts were sent week by week to the unfortunate 
men incarcerated in Germany. 

Organisations for brightening the lot of the 
soldiers sprang up all over the country, and were well 
represented in our town. The mere enumeration of 
the names of the War Workers' Funds and Committees 
would occupy considerable space. The Cigarette 
Fund collected thousands of packets of cigarettes and 
tobacco. The ' ' Daily Telegraph ' ' Christmas Pudding 
Fund had a special day. Flag days and house-to- 
house collections were so frequent that one wondered 
whether there was sufficient genius to invent a fresh 
reason for a collection. 

Busy workers met together in Church halls and 
private houses to make various kinds of garments 
for the boys on the other side. It is impossible to 
record the number of separate articles sent over. 
Many women took pleasure in the consciousness that 
they were at least doing something for the comfort of 
the men who were enduring so much for the protection 
of the country. 

Our gallant Allies were worthily represented in the 



PROVIDING SILVER BULLETS. 205 

charitable efforts which were made. M. Corbes, the 
French Consul, and his wife were very popular 
in connection with charitable functions, and not- 
withstanding the Consul's onerous duties, he seemed 
always willing to give the time required to assist 
others. This may be a fitting place to give some details 
of the work of the French Consulate. It is impossible 
for the uninitiated to form any conception of 
the multifarious duties undertaken by a Consul. 
Owing to the special organisation of the Consular 
service, the functions of the office were multifarious. 
M. Corbes filled the place of Recruiting Officer, Naval 
Administrator, Registrar, and Barrister. He was 
also responsible for the reports on economic and 
commercial subjects, besides dealing with passports 
and visas. He was empowered by the Minister of 
War to call up all Frenchmen of military age in the 
area ; to see that they submitted to a medical exam- 
ination ; and with him was the final decision as to 
their fitness for service. As representative of the 
French Ministry of War, he was also in charge of the 
French soldiers while in Folkestone. This was an 
important office, as many thousands on leave or duty, 
as well as prisoners of war, escaped from Germany, 
were cared for in the area. 

In his capacity of Administration Officer for the 
Navy, the French Consul was entrusted with the 
interests of all French soldiers landed in England 
including wounded and sick men. He had to make 
arrangements for burials and weddings. 

He had also to choose experts to examine and report 
on damage done to French ships ; receive and forward 
to the Minister of Marine the reports of captains in 



206 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

command of ships which were torpedoed or relating to 
accidents on board. 

M. Corbes, while in Folkestone, has written several 
reports on economic and commercial conditions, 
which have been published by the "Office Francais 
du Commerce Exterieur. ' ' The object of these reports 
was to establish closer contact between French and 
British industries, and they were highly commended 
in the Press of both countries. 

The Consul's secretary, M. Albert Payniez, gave 
very able assistance in all matters relating to the 
office. The staff won high praise for its efficiency 
and courtesy, and did much to create that spirit of 
goodwill which is the foundation of the Entente 
Cordiale. 

M. Pierre Turpin, a townsman of Lille, who came to 
reside in Folkestone, graciously offered his services 
without salary. He had charge of the comforts of 
French refugees who happened to be ill or destitute. 
He regularly visited patients in the hospitals, and did 
exceedingly useful work. 

It is particularly pleasing to be able to place on 
record the complete harmony which existed during 
the War between the population of Folkestone, the 
French and Belgian colonies, and those representatives 
of other nationalities temporarily residing in the 
town. This happy condition largely resulted from 
the personal influence of the French Consul himself, 
though he was gracious enough to attribute it to 
others. 

The Italian colony was under the care of Cavaliere 
Ronco, who was always ready to lend a helping hand 
to his unfortunate countrymen. When Italy entered 



PROVIDING SILVER BULLETS. 207 

the War, an arrangement was made by which Italians 
living in the town agreed to a voluntary levy of so 
much per week for the support of the dependents of 
their brothers who were called to join the Army. 
Cavaliere Ronco arranged several flag days and 
concerts on behalf of the Italian Red Cross, and 
succeeded in getting Italy's most famous band to visit 
the town and to give a performance at the Theatre, 
thus adding a large sum to the funds of the Allied 
charities. 



CHAPTER XII. 

THE LEAS AS AN OBSERVATION POST. 
By H. H. 

Folkestone was the bit of England in closest 
proximity to the most critical part of the fighting front 
occupied by the British Army, hence it was the one 
place in England which provided scenes more resem- 
bling those to be witnessed on the Continent during the 
progress of the great world war, although the 
inhabitants of the town were, with the exception of 
one or two instances, spared from the horrors of 
devastation and destruction. The famous Leas 
overlooked one of England's main defences, the 
Channel, and throughout the whole of the war no more 
interesting place could be imagined in the British Isles. 
From a strategical point of view, Folkestone, under the 
wing of that great fortress, Dover, played a most 
important part in the fight against the German nation 
in its attempt to obtain world power, and that the 
enemy realised its supreme importance was de- 
monstrated by the many attempts to bring the terrors 
of war to the very streets of the town. That it 
succeeded in doing so on one occasion only was a 
sterling tribute to the defenders of our shores, 
particularly those gallant men of the Dover Patrol. 

From the outbreak of hostilities, Folkestone sprang 
into great prominence, and the Leas became an 




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THE LEAS AS AN OBSERVATION POST. 209 

observation post for many interesting and exciting, 
and even sad occurrences. The district also assumed 
tremendous importance in the early months of the 
world war by reason of its excellent facilities for 
training troops. Camps sprang up with amazing 
rapidity, and at first many thousands of Lord 
Kitchener's Army carried out the preliminary work 
necessary to fit them for active service. Their places 
were ultimately taken by the Canadian Second 
Division, which was destined to perform such 
marvellous deeds in the field, and those brave men were 
followed by others from the great Dominion. 
Canadians thus became intimately associated with the 
life of Folkestone and Hythe, and finally appeared to 
be an essential part of the various activities of the 
district. 

The rush of refugees was the first incident to bring 
home to Folkestone people what war meant, for there 
passed along the streets long and sad processions of 
homeless people. Then came the arrival of wounded 
British soldiers only a few days after they went into 
action at Mons, and those men were the first of the 
finest Army which ever went out of England to return 
to this country. Previously to this a large number of 
German and Austrian reservists trying to return to 
assist their country were held up at the Harbour and 
escorted away by armed troops, eventually becoming 
inmates of internment camps. The processions 
through the streets caused no little astonishment at 
the time, and here again Folkestone was in the fore- 
front ot the capture of prisoners, many hundreds of 
men failing to slip across to their Fatherland. 

In those early days there followed incident after 



210 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WARS 

incident which evoked feelings of bitterness against 
Germany. The torpedoing of the Amiral Ganteaume 
was a dastardly act, and there would have been an 
appalling death roll but for the gallantry of the captain 
and crew of the S.S. Queen, the mail boat running 
between Folkestone and Boulogne. The first time 
Folkestone people heard the boom of guns in defence 
of the shores of England was when the German 
submarines attacked Dover in the first December of 
war. Mines and submarines brought hidden dangers 
in the Channel as time went on, and ships were sunk 
by these means, several going down in full view of those 
people who happened to be on the Leas. These losses 
resulted in defensive measures being taken by the 
authorities, and what was known as the Folkestone 
Gate was instituted. The Gate consisted of two 
lightships placed off the Pier head, the nearer being 
two and half miles from the Pier and the other a little 
less than a mile further out in the Channel. Between 
these two vessels all ships going up or down the Channel 
had to pass. Then laid across the narrow straits 
towards the French coast was a steel net fixed to large 
wood floats. This net was effective against submarines 
for a time, but wire cutters were eventually fitted to 
the undersea craft, and after some considerable time 
the net had to be removed because of the difficulty 
experienced in keeping it in position owing to the 
currents. On a clear day the floats were clearly 
visible from Folkestone practically right across the 
Channel. Other measures as time went on were taken 
to fight the submarines, the crews of which feared the 
depth charges used by the patrol vessels and the mines, 
the fields for which extended as time went on until 



THE LEAS AS AN OBSERVATION POST. 211 

there was a huge mine area in front of Folkestone 
Leas. Airships also joined in the hunt of the 
submarines, and the airships, which were berthed at a 
large station erected at Capel, provided picturesque 
scenes to the visitors to the town when employed in 
searching the depths of the Channel, and many 
submarines and mines were discovered by the 
crews of these vessels. The losses of merchant ships 
fluctuated as fresh steps were taken to combat the 
lurking peril below the water's surface. In the last 
year of the war, the light barrage brought about the 
defeat of the German submarines' efforts in the 
Channel. The barrage was situated off Folkestone, a 
number of anchored ships carrying powerful search- 
lights, forming practically a square, providing the 
principal illuminant, but inside the square were small 
vessels which burnt flares of a million candle power at 
intervals, so that no submarine could break through 
on the surface at night without being attacked. 
Altogether 125,000 ships passed through the Straits 
during the war, and only 73 were sunk, including the 
hospital ship "Anglia," which had just passed 
Folkestone on its way to Dover from Boulogne. 

Zeppelins, when they commenced their raids, visited 
the district and passed over the town on several 
occasions. One of these marauding aircraft, however, 
found Otterpool Camp, which was occupied by the 
Canadian Field Artillery, in October, 1915, and as the 
bombs exploded, the reports were distinctly heard and 
the vibration felt in Folkestone. It was about nine 
o'clock in the evening, and the many promenaders 
on the Leas saw the flashes when the bombs burst, 
A number of Canadians and about 40 horses were killed 



212 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

in the attack. In August of 191 6 a super-Zeppelin 
of the most improved type attempted to do destruction 
at Folkestone. It approached the town from the 
direction of Sandgate and floated on the breeze 
immediately down the Leas . When over the Harbour 
it hung well up in the darkness as though poised for 
dropping its cargo of bombs. However, suddenly 
the searchlight from the top of Dover Hill shot its beam 
of light upon it, illuminating it from stem to stern. 
Immediately the guns crashed out, and the Zeppelin 
rose higher and higher, speedily making off 
towards the French coast, dropping its bombs with 
resounding crashes into the sea. The guns from Dover 
and from ships in the Channel took part in the fight, 
and a thrilling sight was presented to those who 
hurriedly went on to the Leas as the huge airship ran 
the gauntlet of the searchlights and the bursting shells. 
In what was described as the silent air raid by 
Zeppelins on England in the autumn of 1917 the Dover 
Hill gun was the only one fired at the aircraft in this 
country. At least two returned by way of Folkestone 
from their raid on London, and the first was fired at. 
As it went out to sea a tremendous splashing noise was 
heard, and it was thought that it had been hit and so 
lost one of its under carriages, which had fallen in the 
sea. As the second crossed over the town aeroplanes 
carrying lights, apparently in pursuit, passed over 
in the wake of the airship. This was the occasion 
when such a heavy toll was paid by the invaders 
in France, whither they were driven by the wind. 

The German torpedo destroyers operating from 
Zeebrugge and Ostend on three occasions carried out 
operations as far as Folkestone, which, however, 



THE LEAS AS AN OBSERVATION POST. 213 

fortunately escaped shelling. The enemy forces, how- 
ever, on each occasion adopted the cut and run tactics, 
and avoided a fight with anything like equal forces. 
On October 27th, 1916, they dashed out of port on a 
very dark night, evidently with the idea of interfering 
with the transport service between Folkestone and 
Boulogne. It was about eleven o'clock that the ships 
came into action, and the stabbing flashes and the 
rolling noise of the guns south-east of Folkestone 
disturbed the people of the town. The result was that 
H.M.S. "Flirt" was sunk. While the fighting was 
proceeding in that spot, the S.S. "Queen," which was 
used as a transport, was coming across from Boulogne, 
when suddenly, near the Varne Bank, the crew found 
their vessel surrounded by enemy ships. They were 
ordered to stop, and on doing so the ship was boarded 
by German officers and men. The crew were then told 
to lower their boats and leave the ship. They obeyed 
orders, and the Germans placed bombs in the ship, and 
the resultant explosions shook the town. The ' ' Queen, " 
however, did not sink at once, but drifted beyond Dover, 
where she eventually went down. One of the crew of 
the transport, a Folkestone man, lost his life. 

The next time the German craft appeared off this 
part of the coast they paid dearly for their adventure. 
The world was thrilled with the exploits of H.M.S. 
' ' Broke ' ' and H.M.S. ' ' Swift, ' ' which tackled a much 
superior force of the enemy (who tried to avoid a fight), 
and meted just punishment out to the raiders. Some 
hours previously a strong enemy flotilla, again taking 
advantage of the high tide to ride over the mine fields 
and the darkness, crept out of port and dashed across 
to the English coast. Their presence was not dis- 



214 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

covered until they sent up brilliant star shells when 
apparently about four miles off Folkestone. The 
streets of the town were lit up by the shells, and 
immediately a heavy bombardment of the coast began. 
Whether the Germans were out in an attempt to smash 
up the Capel Air Station or not can only be assumed, 
but shells fell fast and furious about half a mile to the 
east of the aerodrome. The whistle of the projectiles 
could be heard by the people in the streets of the town, 
but the shells fell harmlessly in the fields close to the 
examining guard station. An officer's hut narrowly 
missed destruction, and a sentry box was literally 
peppered with shrapnel. The bombardment lasted for 
about ten minutes, after which the destroyers made for 
their lairs. The ' ' Broke" and ' ' Swift ' ' were to the 
east of Dover, and ran into the enemy as they were 
returning. Action was immediately oegun, and again 
bright flashes and heavy rumbles showed to the people 
on the coast that the enemy were not escaping without 
a grim fight. The two British vessels against their six 
opponents put up a gallant fight, and the record of 
their deeds will ever be a bright page in the history of 
the Navy, for they sank two ot the raiding ships and 
possibly a third. 

Then in February, 1918, the German torpedo 
destroyers came into the Straits with the clear intention 
of breaking up, if possible, the light barrage placed in 
the Channel to combat the U-boats. It was about one 
o'clock in the morning that the thunder of guns broke 
the stillness of the night, and the streets of Folkestone 
re-echoed with the heavy reverberations. The enemy 
craft were apparently quite close in, and they 
immediately engaged a number of drifters chasing a 



THE LEAS AS AN OBSERVATION POST. 215 

U-boat in the barrage. The firing continued on and off 
for about an hour, and it was evident to the many on- 
lookers on the shore that very speedy vessels were 
engaged, for the flashes from the guns showed that the 
action was continuing across the Channel from 
Folkestone towards Cape Gris Nez. Although seven 
drifters and one trawler were sunk, the light barrage 
never faltered, and the men on those ships kept on 
their ceaseless watches. Two or three shells were fired 
inland, but fell in fields between Folkestone and Dover. 
On the following night the barrage was even stronger 
than on the previous night, thus demonstrating that the 
Germans' efforts had been futile. However, on that 
night Dover was again bombarded for about five 
minutes, and the slumbers of Folkestone people were 
again disturbed. 

In the last two years of the war the Leas was a spot 
from which the great air offensive by the Germans on 
the chief ports in Northern France could be seen very 
frequently. On a favourable evening it was almost a 
certainty that an attack would be made either on 
Calais or Boulogne, or some other place on the coast, 
and as darkness fell so there appeared over the French 
coast a sudden stab of light in the heavens. Then the 
distant rumble of guns followed, and usually the fight- 
ing lasted at least an hour, sometimes extending over 
three or four hours. In August, 1917, the moonlight 
raids had not really commenced on this country, and 
one of the first was made at the time the Dover fortress 
guns were carrying out a night practice. The Leas was 
filled with people anxious to see the guns firing. Their 
attention was attracted to the French coast and well 
inland by seeing hundreds of what appeared to be 



21 6 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

twinkling stars continually breaking light in the sky. 
Such a state of things continued for about an hour, when 
suddenly the Dover guns at practice rang out. A few 
minutes ensued, then the hum of an aeroplane could be 
heard approaching. It was not long before the 
terrifying noise of bursting bombs followed as the 
machine dropped its death-dealing load on Dover. 
This was the commencement of a series of raids on this 
country right through the autumn and into the winter. 
It was a thrilling sight to see the guns fighting the air- 
craft with their barrage fire, and one incident in 
February, 1918, will live in the memory of everyone 
who witnessed it. A raider returning from London 
was caught in the searchlights well over the hills to the 
north-east of Folkestone. The pilot evidently did not 
care to face the barrage with which he would be met by 
the Dover guns, so he turned to the westward, probably 
with the idea of getting free of the brilliant lights. 
The huge machine flew across Folkestone from east to 
west, and the guns made splendid practice. The 
aeroplane appeared to be made of silver in the glare of 
the searchlights, and the shells could be followed in 
their flight towards it. Thousands of people watched 
the fight which ensued for several minutes, but the 
aeroplane, try as it would, could not evade the piercing 
rays from the lights. Shells apparently burst all round 
the machine, and ultimately one appeared to explode 
right beneath the aeroplane, which fell straight out of 
the beams of light, and nothing further was heard of it. 
The official communique later in the day announced 
that one machine was brought down in the sea. In the 
July and August of the last year of war raids on Calais 
and Boulogne were of nightly occurrence, and were 









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THE LEAS AS AN OBSERVATION POST. 217 

plainly seen from the promenade. The great raid on 
the British hospitals at Eta pies was plainly heard at 
Folkestone and the bursting of the shells could be seen 
from the Leas. In fact the vibration was so greft 
from the raid that Folkestone shook during its progress, 
and the noise of the guns seemed only a few miles 
distant. During the whole of the war about no 
air raid warnings were received by the authorities. 

Folkestone was also an important centre dealing 
with British aircraft, for within a few months of 
hostilities commencing aeroplanes were sent to 
Hawkinge previous to their despatch to France. Later 
a big aerodrome was erected at Lympne, near Hythe, 
and this was utilised by machines proceeding to the 
fighting front. Most of the aeroplanes flew towards 
Folkestone before crossing the Channel, and many 
thousands of aeroplanes passed over to the Continent 
by this route. The first passenger -carrying service 
by the Handley-Page machines was instituted 
in 1918 by the Royal Air Force, and the giant aeroplane 
could be seen daily making its flight to and from 
Marquise, in France. It was known as the Channel 
Ferry and was used for bringing back to England the 
pilots engaged in taking out new machines to France. 
In the first four months, 227 trips were made, 8,085 
miles were covered, and 1,843 passengers transported, 
and this was accomplished in days when a passenger- 
carrying service was supposed to be a thing of the 
future. 

On a perfect summer evening in July, 19 18, three sea- 
planes were seen making towards Folkestone Harbour. 
The Admiralty motor launch from Dover, carrying 
Vice-Admiral Sir Roger Keyes, at the same time left 



2l8 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

the Harbour. The seaplanes gracefully settled on the 
calm sea, and the motor launch went towards them. 
From two of the seaplanes climbed the King and the 
Queen of the Belgians, who were thus the first Royal- 
ties to cross the Channel by aeroplane. They were 
welcomed by Admiral Sir Roger Keyes, in whose motor 
launch they were taken to the Pier, where they were 
received by the Naval and Military Authorities of the 
Port. Queen Elisabeth expressed her enjoyment 
of the flight, and said she had crossed in 25 minutes. 
The Royal visitors then proceeded to the Grand Hotel 
by motor car, and stayed the night there. On the 
following morning they walked along the Leas and in 
Sandgate Road, previous to their departure for London 
by motor. They returned from London on the follow- 
ing Thursday, but owing to a strong south-westerly 
breeze they could not fly to France and had to make the 
crossing by ship. 

Men of all the Allied nations were seen during the war 
marching along the front on their way to the battle 
zone. In the early stages the Rest Camp in the Marine 
Parade was the only place provided for their accommo- 
dation, but other places were taken over as time pro- 
ceeded. Many thousands of Canadians passed along 
the Lower Sandgate Road from their training grounds 
in the Shorncliffe area to be transported across the 
Channel. Then the Chinese Labour Corps and the 
South African natives, also needed as working parties, 
marched by the sea after staying for a short time at the 
Labour Concentration Camp near Caesar's Camp. 
Americans too made Folkestone a resting place 
after their long journey from their native land on their 
way to assist in the upholding of justice and liberty. 



THE LEAS AS AN OBSERVATION POST. 2IO, 

The first contingent arrived in April of 1918, and then 
in May a further fine body of men, numbering several 
thousands, stayed several days in the town. Their 
bands gave delight to many thousands of people on the 
Leas, and those gallant men of the American continent 
won for themselves the greatest respect and esteem of 
the townspeople by their upright bearing and true 
soldierly conduct. They came with a great purpose, 
and they heard the first noise of warfare in Folkestone 
when the echo of the guns in France came across the 
narrow silver streak. The daily sight of the finest 
manhood of the world passing down the Slope Road 
and along the other roads was a spectacle which will 
ever be treasured in the memory of those who 
witnessed it, for those men went light-heartedly to 
the severest trials ever imposed on men. 

Associated with Folkestone in most important war 
work were the surrounding districts. Hythe was one 
of the principal schools for preparing for aerial combat. 
Its ranges were utilised as a school of aerial gunnery, 
and here pilots and observers were trained in the new 
kind of warfare in the air. In the opening days of the 
great conflict motor machine guns were stationed 
in the ancient Cinque Port, which also became a training 
ground for the balloon section of the Forces. The 
School of Musketry had much to do with making a large 
section of Lord Kitchener's First Army, and the 
Canadians as well, so proficient with the rifle that 
they rivalled the fine " Contemptibles," whose musketry 
so surprised the enemy when they first came in contact 
with them. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

THE WORK OF THE CHURCHES. 
By Eric Condy. 

In the early days of August, 191 4, the Senior 
Chaplain of the Garrison, the Rev. R. Deane Oliver, 
entered enthusiastically into the work of providing 
institutions for the social life of the troops in the 
town and district. He called together a few members 
of the Church of England, from the various churches 
in the town, and it was decided to open a Club for 
Soldiers in Folkestone. No other suitable building 
being available, they approached the Rev. Canon 
Tindall, Vicar of Folkestone, and the authorities 
of the Parish Church, who readily agreed to lend the 
Woodward Institute. A Committee, under the chair- 
manship of Mr. A. R. Bowles, A.M.I.C.E., was formed. 
The Club was opened on August 30th, and from the 
first proved a great success. Men of every unit in 
the British Army made it a rendezvous for themselves 
and their comrades, and as soon as the Canadians 
arrived they came nightly in their hundreds. 

On Sundays, and occasionally on weekdays, services 
were held by various clergymen. Twice a week during 
the winter and once a week during the summer, 
concerts were provided by amateur concert parties, 
and the Playhouse Orchestra gave their services 
voluntarily once a month. In the large hall were 
billiard, ping-pong, and writing tables ; writing 



THE WORK OF THE CHURCHES. 221 

paper and envelopes were provided free of charge ; 
a Club Post Office supplied stamps, postal orders, and 
pictorial cards ; tobacco, cigarettes, chocolate, biscuits, 
and soap were on sale, and the catering department 
supplied tea, coffee, cocoa, non-alcoholic drinks, and 
all manner of eatables at the lowest possible charges. 
On very busy evenings as many as fifty loaves, one 
thousand teas, and six hundred eggs were consumed. 
A staff of over fifty was required to look after the 
comfort of the men, and volunteers were readily 
obtained. The Club was worked on business lines, 
was entirely self-supporting, and at the close there 
was a balance sufficient to cover the cost of repairs and 
decorations when the premises were finally vacated. 
Many deserving institutions received subscriptions, 
varying from £10 to £25, from the Club funds. 

For the first two years of the War free Christmas 
dinners were given to a number of soldiers. 
In a short account it would be impossible to 
mention all who sacrificed time and energy to 
make the Club a success — the sense of hard work done 
for God and humanity, together with the constantly- 
spoken and written gratitude of the men, must be their 
chief reward. The fact that this was the first Club 
opened and that it remained open throughout the 
war is recorded as a grateful testimony to all who 
worked there and strove to encourage the people of 
Folkestone to consider the need of providing permanent 
institutions, on the same fines, for the young men 
and women of the town. The Rev. David Railton, 
senior Curate of the Parish Church, who took a great 
interest in the club in its early days, became a Chaplain 
of the Forces and served in France for three years, 
receiving the distinction of the M.C. 



222 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

Throughout the war the Parish Church Branch of 
the Church of England Temperance Society worked 
with great energy in the interest of the sailors and 
soldiers. It had the advantage of an enthusiastic 
Committee, of which Mr. J. A. Abbott was the Secretary. 
Socials and dances were provided every Monday and 
Thursday for the men, their relations and friends, 
in the lower Woodward Hall, and refreshments were 
provided by the Clewer Sisters, who work in the parish, 
assisted by many willing helpers. These socials, which 
were always well attended, were a great attraction 
to the Canadian troops, and resulted in many 
invitations to visit the homes of Folkestone residents. 

With all other places of worship in the town, Christ 
Church shared the privilege of serving as a spiritual 
home for the gallant men who were quartered in the 
district. From August, 1914, onwards the Imperials 
and Canadians attended the services, especially on 
Sunday evenings, in large numbers. Many who 
belonged to church choirs out West joined that of 
Christ Church during their stay, proving regular and 
enthusiastic substitutes for the Folkestone members 
who had joined up. Many Canadian Chaplains — fine 
preachers all — ministered in the Church from time to 
time and the worshippers in khaki, by their rapt 
attention, manly reverence, and simple heartiness, set 
a good example to the whole congregation. 

In September, 19 14, the Parish Hall in Victoria 
Grove was opened as a Club for Soldiers, under the 
management of a Committee headed by the Rev. L. 
G. Grey, Vicar. To the splendid energy of Mrs. 
Theobald, the lady in charge, and Mrs. H. Evans, 
Hon. Secretary, the Club owed the principal measure 



THE WORK OF THE CHURCHES. 223 

of its success. The atmosphere of home and friendli- 
ness which marked the life of the Club soon proved 
a strong magnet to the boys, far from their homes and 
new to a soldier's life. And here must be recorded 
the great loss the Club sustained by the death, in 1915, 
of Miss Laura Roberts, of whom it may be truly said 
that she had worn herself out in her labours for the 
boys, and was the first of that splendid band of civilian 
war workers who gave their lives for their country. 
With the departure of the last of Kitchener's Army 
in 19 15, and the opening of many other institutions 
in the town, the necessity for this particular Club came 
to an end. The Rev. L. G. Grey threw himself 
enthusiastically into war work of various kinds, and his 
powerful speech in Radnor Park, delivered during 
"Aeroplane Week," in connection with the War 
Savings Campaign, will long be remembered. 

In connection with Holy Trinity Church, a Soldiers' 
Club at the Parish Room was opened by General Spens 
in October, 1914. During the winter the daily 
attendance varied from 200 to 500. £400 was 
subscribed in addition to many donations in the shape 
of furniture and fittings, which enabled the Committee 
to supply good and cheap refreshments, stationery, 
games, books, and newspapers. Concerts, whist drives, 
special teas, Christmas parties, and theatre parties were 
of frequent occurrence. The Hon. Secretary, 
Inspector-General O' Grady, R.N., assisted by a loyal 
band of workers, made the Club one of the most popular 
and successful. In 191 5 a most welcome donation of 
£58 was received from the Canadian troops, who wrote : 
' ' We very much appreciate the Club and consider it 
the best institution of the kind in the neighbourhood. ' * 



224 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

The balance in hand at the close, in 1919, was dis- 
tributed among local and military charities. 

Among the more tragic and pitiful episodes of the 
early weeks of the war may be noted the arrrival, at 
all hours of the day and night, of fishing- boats 
full of Belgian refugees, landing at the slipway opposite 
the Fish-market, being helped by the stalwart, kindly- 
hearted fishermen, whose wives had prepared bowls of 
hot soup, and other good souls who came out of the 
Radnor Street passages with steaming pots of coffee 
for the weary wanderers who had completed the 
perilous voyage in the darkness of the night and come 
to safety. It was a common sight to see lines of pallid 
women sitting on the pavement under the wall of St. 
Michael's Church, waiting their turn to be attended to 
at the Husband Memorial Hall, which had been speedily 
turned into a shelter for them, and where the Vicar 
and his little company of church workers did yeoman 
service in succouring the poor hungry refugees and 
providing them with warm clothing in place of their 
wet garments. These poor creatures were often moved 
to tears of gratitude by the kindly help and sympathy 
extended to them. 

Afterwards, when the Belgian Refugees Committee 
got to work and better arrangements were made, the 
Parish Hall became a Club for the Belgian soldiers 
passing through the town, under the title of ' ' Militaire 
Cercle Albert, ' ' and became a happy meeting-place for 
many thousands of them. 

Several ladies of the congregation of St. Peter's 
Church exerted themselves in attending to the wants 
of the Belgian refugees on their arrival, often finding 
them lodgings or getting them well housed in the 



THE WORK OF THE CHURCHES. 225 

country — as well as in effecting the reunion of families 
whom the panic and confusion of the embarkation had 
separated. One of the most stirring events of the 
early days of the War was the arrival, very early one 
morning, of a fleet of fishing-boats and barges, bringing 
fishermen and their terrified families from the 
Belgian coast. Many of the refugees found hospitality 
in East Street and Radnor Street and the children 
were welcomed at St. Peter's Schools. St. Peter's 
Club gave shelter to a large number of families, and the 
Rev. E. A. Jordan, Assistant Priest, was indefatigable 
in collecting food and ministering to these unfortunate 
people. His motor-car was continually traversing 
the town on errands of mercy. He was also instru- 
mental in providing one of the earliest clubs for soldiers 
in Tontine Street. 

Late in the autumn of 191 5 a wish was expressed by 
the Military Authorities that the churches would do 
all that was possible to attract the soldiers away from 
the streets on Sunday evenings. The Council of 
Radnor Park Congregational Church decided to 
initiate an evening service of less conventional type 
than the ordinary and to make it widely known to the 
troops. The result was a continuous series which ran 
from Christmas, 1915, until the summer of 1918. On 
many occasions the attendance was so large that the 
seating capacity was strained to the utmost. Music 
filled a large place in these services. The ordinary 
framework of public worship was never disturbed, 
but most jealously safeguarded. There were four 
hymns, sung to familiar tunes, prayer, Scripture 
reading, and short address. To this were added one, 
or sometimes two, anthems, two vocal, and often violin 



226 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

or violincello solos, and, generally, instrumental music 
by a military band. The popular military service was 
an experiment, and undoubtedly a successful one. 

Soon after the outbreak of war, the Rev. A. Allon 
Smith called a meeting of his congregation, when it 
was unanimously decided to place the Lecture Hall of 
Radnor Park Church at the disposal of the military. 
The Club was opened, by General Spens, on 12th 
October, 19 14. Mrs. T. A. Mummery took charge of 
the catering arrangements, and, with the assistance of a 
willing band of helpers, carried them out most success- 
fully during five winters. Mr. T. A. Mummery, the 
Superintendent, must be credited with having created a 
record in being absent on only five occasions out of 
1,141 evenings. There were many generous donors of 
papers, magazines, books, sets of draughts, chessmen, 
and dominoes, and bagatelle boards, and Mr. F. 
Fletcher presented a billiard table, which was much 
appreciated and used. The number of signatures 
in the attendance book was 9,580, but it is probable 
that 12,000 men made use of the room. Many warm 
friendships were made, and after their removal to the 
front many of these men kept in touch with the Club 
by periodical correspondence — one soldier sent a 
Christmas card headed "Radnor Park Dug-out." 

The number of letters posted in the club box reached 
the large total of 20,288. The idea, at the outset, was 
that the Club should be self-supporting, and this was 
successfully accomplished. The profit from the 
refreshments was sufficient to pay for the lighting, 
heating, and cooking. Each Christmas the men were 
entertained as the guests of the helpers, all the 
provisions being given by the generous friends of the 
Church. 



THE WORK OF THE CHURCHES. 227 

The outbreak of war and the urgent demands of the 
numerous refugees immediately affected the many 
organisations of the Folkestone (Tontine Street) 
Congregational Church, which is the largest Free 
Church in Folkestone. Possessing premises extensive 
and easily adaptable, the officers and members of 
the Church at once made every effort possible to 
cope with the new situation. 

Members of the Church opened their homes to 
hospitably entertain refugees, and closed down many 
church activities to utilise the premises for social 
service. During the whole of the war period a large 
Institute, equipped with billiard tables, table games, 
also a Badminton court, was opened. 

A canteen was staffed by the voluntary services of 
the Church ladies, and for more than four years, despite 
the difficulties of rationing and Food Control, the 
canteen was maintained for service men . 

In addition to providing food, shelter, and clothing 
for the refugees, the Church, although depleted of its 
manhood by the enlistment of over 200 men in the 
Forces, collected many tons of vegetables for the 
Fleet, which work received high commendation from 
Sir David Beatty, the British Admiral. In January, 
1918, the Church erected a Roll of Honour to the men 
who joined the fighting forces. 

The first Wall Tablet, bearing 180 names, was un- 
veiled by Sir Philip Sassoon, Bart., M.P., on January 
14th, 1918. 

The Sunday services were organised with a view to 
meeting the requirements of the troops ; bands 
were substituted for the church organ, and thousands 
of men attended. The Pastor of the Church, the 



228 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

Rev. Henry T. Cooper, preached and lectured under 
Y.M.C.A. auspices as well as maintaining a vigorous 
campaign in closer relation to his Church work, and the 
tributes of men from overseas, replying to the Pastor's 
personal messages, proved that the Church, under 
the stress of war conditions, was not found wanting. 

A further Roll of Honour is to be erected, and 
commemorative Choir Stalls with structural alterations 
are about to be made to complete the scheme. In a 
very special way this Church set itself to deal with 
the exigencies of war demands, and to its rigorous 
activity for the benefit of all classes not a few are glad 
to testify. 

Not only at Grace Hill Church, but at Canterbury 
Road, the Wesleyan body did all that was possible to 
make the men of the Imperial, South African, Canadian, 
and Australian Forces welcome. The special services 
were well attended, and some highly-successful enter- 
tainments and "At Homes" were arranged in the 
school-room, which was transformed into a Soldiers' 
Club. Occasionally, when a man was starting for the 
front a little ' ' send off ' ' was insisted on. On one such 
occasion the guest of the evening made this parting 
speech : "I came here an absolute stranger ; every- 
body in this room has been my friend. If I ever return 
to these shores, this is the first spot I shall seek. ' ' 
Another night a group of American soldiers turned in 
before leaving and asked to express their thanks. One 
of them drew a pocket Bible from his tunic. Holding 
it up, a piece of bunting floated from it, and he said 
' ' In the strength of the Old Book and the ' Old Glory ' 
we have come across the seas, and in the same strength 
we go to-morrow to fight for you. ' ' 



THE WORK OF THE CHURCHES. 229 

The presence of so many soldiers led to considerable 
changes in the work of the Folkestone Baptist Church. 
The evening service was adapted to meet the special 
needs of men, and through the whole period of the 
War the Sunday evening service was very largely 
attended by soldiers. 

An Institute was opened in the Lecture Hall. The 
canteen was under the superintendence of Mrs. Carlile, 
with the able assistance of Miss A. Sherwood, Mrs. 
Beall and Mrs. George Pope. Mr. Froggatt arranged 
French classes ; Mr. Councillor Boyd and Mr. Councillor 
Morrison helped to make the men feel at home. The 
club was very popular, and was finally taken over by 
the National Y.M.C.A. When the Luton Hut was 
erected the staff was transferred from the Baptist 
Church. 

A correspondence club was maintained to keep in 
touch with men who joined the Army, and many letters 
were written to Folkestone boys and to those who 
stayed in the town with their regiments for brief 
periods. 

The coming of the refugees necessitated special 
activities. A French service was held every Sunday 
afternoon. Among the preachers was Pasteur 
Saillens, the distinguished Parisian orator, and P. 
Blommaert, who afterwards became the Chaplain- 
General for the Protestants in the Belgian Army. M. 
Blommaert, while in Folkestone, became acquainted 
with the work of the United Army Board, and 
determined to endeavour to create a similar organisa- 
tion for his countrymen. He received the authority 
of King Albert, and the Protestant chaplaincy service 
became an accomplished fact. Pasteur Nock and M. 



23O FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

Bains were in charge of the services, with the assistance 
of M. Catinous and M. Dupree. Meetings were held 
frequently during the week, and assistance given to 
those in need. M. Bains raised a large sum of money 
for the relief of Protestant Christians who remained in 
Belgium, and Pasteur Nock succeeded in supplement- 
ing the sum by some hundreds of pounds. The Minister 
of the Church and Pasteur Nock became the local 
representatives of the Belgian Chaplaincy Service. 

A special fund was raised for the assistance of 
Belgian Protestant Pasteurs. The Minister of the 
Church made an appeal through the ' ' Christian World ' ' 
and the "British Weekly," with the result that a 
considerable sum of money was sent to the Treasurer, 
Mr. A. Stace, J. P. 

Letters and comforts were sent to Belgian soldiers. 
Pasteur Nock and Miss E. K. Stace devoted much time 
to the French correspondence, and received many 
expressions of gratitude. 

For the Canadians "Conferences" on the deeper 
questions of religion were held and "At Homes" and 
concert parties arranged. More than forty soldiers 
were connected with the choir, which for some time was 
under the direction of Lieutenant Brown and 
Lieutenant Ford, both Canadians. 

Invitations were issued from members of the church 
and congregation for soldiers to join the family group 
at tea on Sunday afternoons. The idea grew in favour 
until about three hundred boys were guests week by 
week. 

The Minister of the Church, at the request of the 
chaplains and the Y.M.C.A., gave one or two nights per 
week to meetings in the huts, and finally visited all the 



THE WORK OF THE CHURCHES. 231 

Canadian camps in the country for a series of con- 
ferences on religion. 

Sister Rosamond became nurse to unmarried mothers 
who were unable to pay for trained assistance. Her 
aid was very welcome, and her useful work gave new 
hope to many girls and women in their darkest hours. 

About the middle of October, 1914, the Salvation 
Army arranged their small h?ll as a Soldiers' Club, and 
this was used until other and larger premises were 
devoted to the same purpose. In November of the 
same year, Mr. Franklin, the Local Government Board 
representative on the Refugees Committee, enlisted 
the help of the Salvationists in attending to the wants 
of the poor Belgians who had fled from their country. 
The first party accommodated in the hall consisted of 
150 Ostend fisher-folk, who stayed a week and were 
afterwards despatched to their various destinations. 
In December, 1915, the Adjutant in charge was asked 
by Colonel Aytoun, Embarkation Officer, to accommo- 
date the relatives of wounded men passing through the 
town on the way to and from France, and from 
January, 1916, until the end of the year, 700 people 
were cared for at private houses, after which 6, Marine 
Terrace was rented and furnished for this purpose, an 
officer being appointed to meet the trains and boats 
and conduct the people to the Hostel. 

All through the war the Silver Band held an open- 
air service every Sunday afternoon opposite the 
entrance to the harbour, and cheered thousands of 
our boys on their way to the front. 

When the daylight air raid occurred in May, 1917, 
Adjutant Edwards lent great assistance to the Police, 
and afterwards regularly visited the injured in the 
Hospital. 



232 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

When Kitchener's Army came to Shorncliffe Camp 
for training the Congregational Church at Sandgate 
instituted a parade service on Sunday mornings, 
conducted by the Pastor, the Rev. A. Wilson, 
C.F. The school- room was open every evening, as a 
Club where light refreshments, writing materials, etc., 
were provided entirely free of cost to the soldiers, 
the whole of the expenses being met by the members of 
the congregation and their friends. From October 
to March, during three years, French classes were held 
and were nightly much appreciated by the men. Much 
hospitality was shown to soldiers by private families. 
Collections were made each year for the Christmas 
pudding fund, the Red Cross and St. John Ambulance 
Fund, the Sailors' Society, the Blind at St. Dunstan's, 
and the V.A.D. Hospital at the Bevan Home. When 
the Canadians took possession of Shorncliffe Camp the 
Y.M.C.A. took over the Alhambra Music Hall, which 
proved well adapted to the purpose of a Soldiers' Club. 

The Cheriton Baptist Church, under the leadership 
of the Rev. John Daniel, opened its Institute, which 
proved a great attraction to soldiers. Several 
thousand men found the homely character of the place 
and its distinctly Christian tone much to their liking. 

The Church carried on the usual agencies. The 
evening services were popular with the men. The 
medical nurse of the Folkestone Baptist Church was 
lent to Cheriton for two days a week to minister to the 
needs of soldiers' wives, and her help was very much 
valued by the poorer people. 

When Mr. Daniel left, in 1917, Mr. Penry Pryse 
(ex-quarter-master-sergeant) became Minister, and gave 
much assistance to discharged soldiers and sailors and 
their families. 



THE WORK OF THE CHURCHES. 233 

The Roman Catholic Church had, naturally, the 
largest share in ministering to the French and Belgian 
people who sought refuge in our hospitable town. 
Monsignor Coote and the local priests had the valuable 
assistance of priests from Belgium. The care of the 
sick and anxious of their faith involved a heavy strain. 
The numerous extra services necessitated additional 
accommodation, and the Town Hall was lent by the 
Corporation for the celebration of Mass day by day. 
The Church of Our Lady Help of Christians was 
thronged with worshippers. The priests instituted 
additional schools for the children, and clubs for adults, 
and found homes for many of the destitute. 

The smaller places of worship showed commendable 
zeal in the good work. Ebenezer Hall, under the 
guidance of Councillor W. J. King-Turner, did much 
for the children of refugees. Canterbury Road 
Congregational Church gave great assistance to those 
in need. The Pastor (the Rev. H. Merchant) 
and his wife served on several Committees, and Mr. 
Merchant did useful work at the Harvey Grammar 
School as substitute for one of the teachers who was 
called to the Colours. 

At the outbreak of war the Church of England 
authorities at Hythe recognised that there was great 
need in the town for a Soldiers' Recreation Club, as 
numbers of men from the surrounding camps were 
coming into the town every evening. A suitable 
room over the Co-operative Stores in High Street was 
secured. The Club was opened in October, 1914, and 
immediately became most popular with the men. 
The ladies who superintended the refreshments and 
stationery departments were indefatigable in their 



234 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

efforts, concerts and other entertainments were 
arranged from time to time, and wounded soldiers from 
the hospitals were made welcome. During the war a 
short intercession for our Forces was offered up in the 
room every evening. 

During the autumn of 1914, Hythe, like Folkestone, 
was filled with Belgian and French refugees, for whom 
the Congregational Schoolroom was set apart, and all 
denominations helped to minister to their wants. 
At the Parish and Mission Churches weekly inter- 
cession services were held. In the Mission Church 
there is a war shrine with a list of the men who have 
fallen inscribed in framed tablets, and the late Mr. 
Melvill Hughes also erected a large war shrine in his 
private grounds in North Road. 

In the early months of the war, when many troops 
were billetted in Hythe, it was necessary to hold two 
parade services every Sunday, at 9.15 a.m. and 10 a.m. 
Each was attended by about 700 officers and men. 
The Vicar usually officiated, often with the assistance 
of Army chaplains. 

The yearly solemn service of special prayer held at 
the Church was always attended by the Mayor and 
Corporation, and a special service was held after the 
raid in May, 1917. 

The Wesleyan Church opened a club, and succeeded 
in creating a homely spirit among the men. Parade 
services were held regularly, and the Minister (the Rev. 
E. D. Martin) gave lectures and conducted classes, 
with great profit to the soldiers. 

On being appointed to the charge of the Congrega- 
tional Church at Hythe in 191 5 the Rev. Frederic 
Hirst, Officiating Chaplain to the School of Musketry, 



THE WORK OF THE CHURCHES. 235 

and Acting Chaplain to the 30th Battalion (Canadians), 
soon attracted large congregations of soldiers. 

A parade service was held at 11 a.m. on Sundays, 
Bible study circle, with an average attendance of 100, 
in the afternoon, song service at 6, and the usual 
evening service at 6.30, followed by a social gathering 
in the Lecture Hall and a "good-night" service. A 
lounge was furnished, where the men enjoyed rest, 
wrote letters, played games, and made friends. During 
the week concerts, lectures, debates, and socials were 
held, and when the public was admitted a collection 
was made for the Soldiers' Comforts Fund and parcels 
were sent to the men on active service. Canadian 
bands played in the Church at the monthly musical 
services, and Canadian chaplains frequently conducted 
the services and preached. Everything possible was 
done for the social, moral, and religious welfare of the 
troops. Before the Canadians left the Hythe area 
they made a present to the Church of a pulpit and 
church furniture to the value of £100. 

The Rev. F. Hirst was, later, appointed as Chaplain 
to the men at Westenhanger, Otterpool, Lympne 
Aerodrome, Dymchurch, New Romney, and Lydd, and 
he delivered weekly lectures to the Imperial and 
Colonial troops. 



CHAPTER XIV. 



FOLKESTONE MEN WHO MADE THE SUPREME 
SACRIFICE. 



Since the dawn of history man has striven to 
honour the heroic dead, and to preserve some record 
of their illustrious achievements. The Pyramids 
of Egypt and the ancient inscriptions of the East 
bear witness to the efforts to perpetuate the names of 
warriors whose deeds were glorious memories. 

Folkestone's sons who went to the War and will 
never return did not die in vain. Their lives are not 
to be reckoned by length of years, but by greatness 
of achievement. They did not fight for personal 
betterment or national advantage, but to free the 
world from military despotism. They gave their 
lives for those who remain. As young Irving Williams 
wrote : ' ' May we not read, ' Greater love than this 
hath no man that he lay down his life foi his country ' ' '? 
And their country was larger than they knew. They 
were all heroes ; their fitting memorial is their im- 
perishable deeds. Could they speak to us would they 
not say, "Do not mourn for the departed, but do your 
duty to those who remain ' ' ? 

Great care has been taken to make the list as 
complete as possible, that the Record may be preserved 
in reverent honour. 

Adair-Hall, Lieut. Malcolm W. F., Royal Innis- 
killing Fusiliers. 



ROLL OF HONOUR. 237 

Allchin, Private Stephen Louis, 7th Lincolnshire. 
Allen, Private George Frederick, 7th Buffs. 
Allen, Private George William, 2nd Essex. 
Allen, Private Thomas Henry, 6th Buffs. 
Allen, Private Thomas James, Able Seaman. 
Ames, Private Albert Ross, 4th Buffs. 
Ames, Capt. Robert Henry, 2nd Leicestershire. 
Ames, Lieut. W. K., Royal West Kent. 
Amos, Private Edward Harry, 7th Buffs. 
Anderson, Driver Charles, A.S.C.M.T. 
Anderson, Private William, 5th Buffs. 
Andrews, First-Class Stoker Alfred, R.N. 
Andrews, Private Percy Arthur, nth Royal Fusiliers 
Angus, Co.-Sergt.-Major John, Royal Scots. 
Appleton, Lance-Cpl. T. E., 7th Buffs. 
Archer, Private Harry, 2nd Batt. Australian 

Infantry. 
Argar, Private Albert George, Kent Cyclists. 
Argar, Gunner Dudley John, R.F.A. * 

Argar, Driver Stephen Henry, R.F.A. 
Arthur, Private William Neville, The Buffs. 
Ashman, Lance-Sergt. Charles Edward, R.M.L.I. 
Austin, Private Alfred John, 2nd East York. 
Avis, Private William Alfred, City of London Regt. 

Bailey, Gunner A.E., R.G.A. 
Bailey, Private Charles Vincent, 4th Royal Fusiliers. 
Bailey, Lance-Cpl. Edward William, R.E. 
Bailey, Private Christopher Gecrge William, 10th 

Essex. 
Baker, Capt. Harry Charles, 16th Canadian Scottish. 
Baker, Private Joseph Claud, Notts and Derby. 
Baker, Private Montague, Royal Berks. 



238 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

Barden, Lance-Cpl. Edward George, 3rd Buffs. 

Barker, Major Godfrey, R.M.L.I. 

Barrett, Sec-Lieut. Cecil Roy, M.C., R.F.A. 

Barrett, Private Robert, Royal Fusiliers. 

Barron, Sec-Lieut. Leslie, R.A.F. 

Barton, Private Arthur Owen, R.W. Surrey. 

Bates, Corporal Albert Henry, Canadian Field 

Artillery. 
Beldon, Private James, 2nd Batt. K.R.R.C. 
Bell, Leading Seaman William John, R.N.R. 
Berridge, Sec-Lieut. William Eric, 6th Somerset 

Light Infantry. 
Binfield, Rifleman Herbert, London Rifle Brigade. 
Binfield, Gunner Joseph, R.G.A. 
Birch, Private George Milner, M.T., R.A.S.C. 
Bodker, Lieut. John George, West Riding Regt. 
Boland, Lance-Cpl. Harry George, South 

Lancashire. 
Bosher, Private George Thomas, M.G.C. 
Bowe, Private George James, The Buffs. 
Brann, Able Seaman William E., R.N. 
Brice, Private James George, 10th London. 
Bridger, Private Alexander W. J., Royal Warwick. 
Bridges, Private Frederick John, 2nd Royal Sussex. 
Bromley, Private Harold, London Scottish. 
Bromley, Private W., 3rd Batt. A.I.F. 
Bull, First-Class Petty Officer Albert Edward, R.N. 
Bull, Sergt. Harold Joyce, 9th Batt. Australian 

Infantry. 
Bull, Sergt. Thomas Henry, 15th Batt. Australian 

Infantry. 
Burrows, Chief Petty Officer Albert Ernest, R.N. 
Burrows, Private Fred, 8th Buffs. 



ROLL OF HONOUR. 239 

Burstow, Gunner Horace William, R.G.A. 
Bushell, Cpl. Arthur, 2dn York and Lancaster. 
Butcher, Private FrederickCharles, 7th Buffs. 
Byrne, Lance-Cpl. Arthur Thomas, Oxford and 
Bucks L.I. 

Camburn, Act.-Sergt. George Hugh, 2nd North 

Staffs. 
Campbell, Major Montagu Irving Mitchell, M.C., 

Connaught Rangers. 
Catt, Private Alfred Ernest, 7th Buffs. 
Catt, Able Seaman Edward Percy, R.N. 
Chalcraft, Private Walter C, Royal West Surrey. 
Champion, Sergt. George, H.L.I. 
Chidwick, Private Arthur E., 9th Highland L.I. 
Chid wick, Private Alfred J., R. Munster Fusiliers 
Childs, Private Charles, M.G.C. 
Claringbould, Private Frederick William, 2nd 

Buffs. 
Clark, Private H., The Buffs. 
Clark, Private John William Frederick, Grenadier 

Guards. 
Clayton, Private Victor Arthur, 8th West Kent. 
Cloke, Rifleman Sydney Daniel, 8th London Regt. 
Cobb, Sec-Lieut. Sydney James, Royal Munster 

Fusiliers. 
Cocks, Bombardier Philip W., R.F.A. 
Cocks, Lance-Cpl. Thomas Frank, Kent Cyclists. 
Coombes, Private Percy Harold, 24th Royal Fusiliers. 
Cornish, Mooring Hand Zachariah, R.N. 
Court, Lance-Cpl. Frank Dale, The Buffs. 
Court, Private John S. S., 5th Buffs. 
Court, Corporal Stephen Conquest. 



24O FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

Cox, Bombardier Philip William, R.F.A. 

Cramer-Roberts, Sec-Lieut. Edward Herbert, 2nd 
Buffs. 

Croucher, Private Frederick R., 5th Royal West 
Kent. 

Croucher, Sec.-Lieut. Frederick William, Royal 
West Kent. 

Cryer, Signaller Ernest, 46 th Batt. A.I.F. 

Cullum, Private Harold, Royal Fusiliers. 

Curtin, Private Joseph Thomas, 1st North Stafford- 
shire. 

Curtis, Sergt. Dispenser Archibald Robert, R.A.M.C. 

Denne, Private Richard Albert, Royal West Kent. 
Dilnot, Cook Lewis, T.S.S. "Queen." 
Dodge, Driver Arthur William, R.F.A. 
Dorrill, Cpl. Walter A., 2nd Oxford and Bucks L.I. 
Doughty, Gunner Frederick James, R.F.A. 
Down, Sapper Frederick Charles, R.E. 
Doyle, Private Arthur John, 2/4th Hants. 
Duggan, Armourer-Cpl. Richard H. J., 12th Batt. 

Canadians. 
Duke, Lieut. Barry Pevensey, Royal Sussex. 
Duncan, Cpl. Arthur James, A.S.C. 
Duncan, Cpl. Charles Edwin, 8th Batt. Rifle Brigade. 
Duncombe, Private Walter John, R.A.M.C. 

Edwards, Capt. Arthur Corbett. 

Edwards, Private Frederick Hadley, 8th East 

Surrey. 
Eldridge, Trooper Theodore T. S., R.E.K.M.R. 
Elgar, Private Edward W. E., 5th Buffs. 
Elgar, Lance-Cpl. Ernest James, 8th Royal 

Fusiliers. 



ROLL OF HONOUR. 241 

Ellis, Private George Crumby, 8th Buffs. 
Evans, Sec-Lieut. Ernest, R.G.A. 

Fagg, Private William Richard, 2nd Worcester. 
Faggetter, Private William Arthur, 9th Queen's 

Own Lancers. 
Farley, Lance-Cpl. Ernest, Canadian Infantry. 
Feather, Lieut. Reginald Albert, 5th Hampshire. 
Featherbe, Gunner Alfred, C.F.A. 
Feist, Private Gordon, The Buffs. 
Finn, Private Frederick William, West Kent. 
Fletcher, Lance-Cpl. Stanley K. G., M.G.C. 
Ford, Sapper F.H., R,E. 
Ford, Sapper William Alfred, R.E. 
Foreman, Private Victor, 15th Middlesex. 
Fowler, Trooper Harold, 1st County of London 

Yeomanry. 
Francis, Lance-Cpl. Arthur Ethelbert, 8th Queen's 

West Surrey. 
Francis, Lance-Cpl. Frank Woodhall, 1st Otagc 

Batt. N.Z.F. 
Francis, Private William Walter, 1st Buffs. 
Fray, Lance-Cpl. Percy Ernest, The Buffs. 
French, Sapper Noel, R.E. 

Frost, Capt. Charles Dale, 110th Mahratta Infantry. 
Furnival, Driver Edward Henry, R.F.A. 

Gains, Lance-Cpl. Albert Francis, 18th Batt. London 

Regt. 
Gains, Rifleman Arthur Edward, 16th Batt. 

K.R.R.C. 
Garlinge, Private Ernest William, 1st Buffs. 
Gibbs, Private E. F., 1st Batt. Canadians. 



242 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

Gifford, Private Aubrey W. f 6th Infantry Batt. 

Australians. 
Gilham, Cpl. Leonard Frederick, Highland L.I. 
Goddard, Capt. Archibald Spencer, 89th Batt. 

Canadian Infantry. 
Godfrey, Private Jack P., London Rifle Brigade. 
Golden, Lieut. Frank Charles A., 12th Durham L.I. 
Goldsack, Private Stephen Edward, East Surrey. 
Goodburn, Chief Signaller Edward, D.C.M., 2nd 

Oxford and Bucks 
Goodman, Private Frederick James, M.G.C. 
Gore, Lieut. Sydney Kingston, 1st Batt. R.W. Kent. 
Green, Driver Harry Edward, R.F.A. 
Greengrass, Charles Frederick, H.M.S. 

' ' Proserpine. ' ' 
Greenland, Able Seaman Frederick J., R.N. 
Griffin, Lieut. Clive, M.C. and Bar, R.F.A. 
Grinstead, Private Solomon, 2nd Royal Sussex. 

Had away, Private C. H., 20th Middlesex. 

Hall, Private Fred Ambrose, East Surrey. 

Hall, Deck Hand George, R.N.R. 

Hall, Private Thomas Crossen, i/i6th London Regt. 

Hall, Private W., 1st Buffs. 

Hammond, Private Sidney Charles, Royal West 

Kent. 
Hannon, Private Michael Nicholas, 1st Buffs. 
Hardiman, Sergt. William Charles, R.E.K.M.Y. 
Hare, Capt. Harry Vivian, Durham Light Infantry. 
Harris, Deck Hand William James, R.N.R. 
Harris, Private William Thomas, 2nd South Lancas- 

shire. 
Harrison, Lance-Cpl. Robert George, 7th Buffs. 



ROLL OF HONOUR. 243 

Harrison, Sergt. George, Grenadier Guards. 

Hart, Private Charles, 6th Buffs. 

Hastie, Co.-Sergt.-Major Frederick, Devonshire 

Regt. 
Hatfield, Private Salisbury, 4th Batt. Australian 

Infantry. 
Hathorn, Lieut. George Hugh V., R.M.L.I. 
Hathorn, Sec-Lieut. Noel McDouall, 76th Punjabis. 
Hayes, Private Archibald, 14th King's Hussars. 
Haywood, Private George Harold, 6th Buffs. 
Herd, Sergt. Ernest William, M.M., R.A.S.C, M.T. 
Heritage, Private Richard, Middlesex Regt. 
Heritage, Private W. R., 16th Middlesex. 
Heydon, 2nd Air Mechanic G. W. Cyril, R.A.F. 
Hill, Private Harry Robert, Queen's West Surrey. 
Hills, Private Harry William, The Buffs. 
Hogben, Sergt. Theophilus, R.G.A. 
Hollamby, Telegraphist Edward Henry, R.N. 
Holtum, Private George Amos, R.A.M.C. 
Hoper, Sergt. Abraham, Royal West Kent. 
Koskyns, Major Henry Charles Walter, D.S.O., 

Lincolnshire Regt. 
Hounsom, Sergt. A. G., 2nd Royal Sussex. 
Howard, Private William Edward, 1st Somerset 

Light Infantry. 
Hughes, Private N., Royal Fusiliers. 
Hughes, Able Seaman William Laws, R.N. 

Innes, Private William George, A.S.C., M.T. 

J ago, Private George James, 12th Gloucester. 
Jarvis, Cpl. William Edward, M.M., 16th Royal 
Warwick. 



244 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

Johnson, Private William, 5th Buffs. 

Jones, Lance-Cpl. Edward Owen, i/ist Glos. and 

Royal Hussars Yeon anry. 
Jones, Sergt. Samuel G. A., 2nd Grenadier Guards. 

Keeler, Private Frederick P., 9th Buffs. 
Keeling, Cpl. Arthur Reginald, Royal Fusiliers. 
Kemp, Private Jesse, 1st Buffs. 
Kennett, Private George Alexander, 10th Canadians 
Kennett, Lance-Cpl. Thomas Lloyd, 1st Buffs. 
King, Private Albert, Northumberland Fusiliers. 
Kingsbury, Private Jesse Humphrey, 12th Res. 

Batt. C.E.F. 
Kingsley, Sergt. Charles Earlwin, 14th Batt. Royal 
I Montreal R. 
Knight, Lance-Cpl. William Lawrence, Royal 

Fusiliers. 

Lake, Lance-Cpl. James Arthur, 1st Buffs. 

Lake, Private Joseph Downing, 2nd Queen's Royal 

West Surrey. 
Lambert, Wireless Telegraphist Gilbert John, 

R.N.V.R. 
Lambert, Sec-Lieut. Jack Fellows, K.R.R.C 
Laney, Lance-Sergt.-Inst. John, 39th Batt. C.E.F. 
Larkin, Private Charles Henry, 1st Norfolk. 
Laws, Cpl. Robert Henry, 7th Buffs. 
Lea, Rifleman George, 2/6 oth Rifles. 
Lee, Able Seaman Percy John, R.N. 
Legg, Sergt. Frederick Charles, 18th London Irish 

Rifles. 
Lemar, Private Charles Percival, 1st Loyal North 

Lancashire. 



ROLL OF HONOUR. 245 

Lemar, Private Frederick, ist Loyal North 

Lancashire. 
Linkin, Private Percy George, R.M.L.I. 
Longley, Private William Henry, i /5th Buffs . 

McParlin, Segt. William, R.F.A. 
McWilliams, Private Victor James, 6th Buffs. 
Major, Sergt. Donald, 12th Canadian Mounted 

Rifles. 
Major, Sergt. Roland, 63rd Canadians. 
Mant, Quart.-Master-Sergt. W. J. J., R.A.M.C. 
Maplesden, Private Wilfred John, 2nd Bedford. 
Mardle, Bombardier Herbert William, R.F.A. 
Marsh, Sergt. George Bromley, R.F.A. 
Marsh, Cpl. Arthur James, R.E. 
Marsh, Able Seaman Thomas James, R.N. 
Marwood, Capt. Charles P. L., ist Royal Warwick. 
Marwood, Ordinary Seaman William George, R.N. 
Maxted, Private Archibald, 2nd Dorset. 
May, Private Joseph, ist East York. 
May, Cpl. William James, 2nd Leinster. 
Meath, Lance-Cpl. Thomas W., 2nd Gloucestershire. 
Menzies, Sec-Lieut. William Alan, R.G.A. 
Mepsted, Lce.-Cpl. Archie, 3rd Grenadier Gurards. 
Mills, Cpl. Cyril, Queen's Royal West Surrey. 
Milton, Private Frederick, 8th Buffs. 
Milton, Lance-Cpl. Henry Thomas, i/4th Buffs. 
Milton, Private Leonard, 3/5th Buffs. 
Morford, Private Eric James William, nth Royal 

West Kent. 
Muir, Major John Huntly, 17th Lancers. 
Munday, Private Charles Edward, nth Queen's 

Royal West Surrey. 



246 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

Munday, Rifleman William Thomas, K.R.R.C. 
Murphy, Bugler John Cornelius Matthias, R.M.L.I. 
Musgrave, Lance-Cpl John, 9th South Stafford. 
Myers, Capt. Henry John, A.S.C. 

Nesbit, Lieut. Henry George, 1st Buffs. 

Newman, Rifleman Archie Victor, 16th London 

Regt. 
Newman, Trooper Reginald G., R.E.K.M.R. 
Newman, Cpl. William, 9th Royal Fusiliers. 
Nicholson, Sec-Lieut. John E. W., Loyal North 

Lancashire. 
Noble, Deck Hand James Robert, R.N.R.T. 
Noyes, Sergt. Observer Charles Henry Crispin, 

R.A.F. 
Nutley, Lance-Cpl. Frederick Edward, 2nd Buffs. 

O'Leary, Private Frederick T., 1st Royal Fusiliers. 
Ongley, Private Arthur Fisher, A.S.C. 
Orchard, Telegraphist Alfred Harold, R.N. 
Orchard, Private Sidney George, M.M., Queen's 

Royal West Surrey. 
Orchard, Private William Samuel, Royal West 

Kent. 
Ovenden, Gunner Frederick, R.F.A. 

Page, Stoker Petty Officer Frederick Henry, R.N. 
Page, Co.-Sergt. -Major Reginald Percy, M.M., 8th 

Royal Norfolk. 
Page, Gunner Stanley Wallace, R.G.A. 
Page, Private Walter Percy, A.S.C.M.T. 
Paine, Private Charles, 6th Bedford. 
Palmer, Private Charles Ernest, R.M.L.I. 



ROLL OF HONOUR. 247 

Palmer, Private John, 8th Buffs. 

Pankhurst, Cpl Alfred James, 28th Canadian 

Infantry. 
Parker, Private Robert C. W., 7th Buffs. 
Parks, Private George C, Royal Marine L.I. 
Parsons, Capt. Alfred Henry, 9th Gurkas. 
Pegg, Private Frederick Robert, A.S.C. 
Penfold, Sec-Lieut. J. B., King's Own Scottish 

Borderers. 
Penny, Private Francis, 4th Royal Fusiliers. 

Rifle Brigade. 
Peters, Rifleman Frederick George, 2nd Batt. 
Peters, Private William Henry, Royal Sussex. 
Petty, Sergt. John Edward, R.F.A. 
Philpott, Private James, 2nd Queen's. 
Philpott, Lance-Cpl. Thomas Bailard, 9th Batt. 

Rifle Brigade. 
Pidduck, Cpl. Leonard, 1st Border Regt. 
Pilcher, Lieut. Alfred M., London Regt. 
Pilcher, Private Denzil Theodore, M.G.C. 
Pilcher, Sergt. H. J., 2/ist R.E. Kent M.R. 
Piper, Private Harry Acres, 15th Suffolk. 
Piper, Private Herbert, Royal West Kent. 
Plaistowe, Sapper Frederick Henry, R.E. 
Poile, Private William Francis, Royal Fusiliers. 
Polden, Private Alfred, Northumberland Fusiliers. 
Pollard, Private William Samuel, R.A.M.C. 
Poole, Private Herbert E. W., 6th Buffs. 
Porter, Private Bert, 18th County of London. 
Porter, Private Harold Edwin, 15th Batt. London 

Regt. 
Prior, Private Ernest Cecil Stephen, London 

Scottish. 



248 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

Prior, Private William, 13th Middlesex. 
Puttee, Lance-Cpl. Arthur Alfred, i/i8th London 
Irish Rifles. 

Quaife, Private Henry, 8th Buffs. 

Quaife, Private Ro»ert Walter Woodiwiss, 8th 

Buffs. 
Quinn, Lance-Cpl. William John, M.G.C. 

Rawlison, Private Frederick Ernest Victor, 2nd 

Royal Fusiliers. 
Rayner, Private George, rst Buffs. 
Reader, Private Horace William, 2nd Buffs. 
Reed, Private Thomas George, 2/4th Buffs. 
Reeve, Sec-Lieut. Harry, King's Liverpool. 
Reynolds-Peyton, Lieut. John, R.N. 
Richards, Bandsman William Robert, 2nd Suffolk 
Richardson, Sub-Lieut. -Engineer Henry, R.N.R. 
Richardson, Private Henry David, 9th East Surrey. 
Rickaby, Lance-Cpl. Maurice Charles, 2nd K.R.R.C. 
Ridgway, Lance-Cpl. Theophilus, 3/8th Manchester 

Regt. 
Ridsdale, Signaller Robert Hugh, Canadian Force. 
Ripley, Sec-Lieut. Charles Roger, York and 

Lancaster. 
Roberts, Private Cyril Henry, 1st Buffs. 
Robus, Deck Hand Frederick James, R.N. 
Rolfe, Private A., 4th Buffs. 
Rose, Private John, 12th Middlesex. 
Rumney, Private Charles, 5th Buffs. 
Ryan, Private Thomas, 6th Buffs. 
Rye, Private Edward, The Buffs. 
Rye, Private James, Queen's West Surrey. 



ROLL OF HONOUR. 249 

Salter, Private Charles Henry, 4th East Kent, T. 
Sankey, Capt. Thomas, 2nd West York. 
de Satge, Capt. Frederick Gordon, K.R.R.C. 
Saunders, Private Walter George, Royal Warwick. 
Savage, Private Herbert Edward, R.A.S.C, M.T. 
Scott, Private Geo. F., 2nd Buffs. 
Seales, Cpl. William Henry, 7th Norfolk. 
Seymour, Lieut. Vere, R.N.R. 
Sherwood, Cpl. Cyril Edward, 7th Buffs. 
Shopland, Private Edward John, R.W. Kent. 
Shrubsole, Sergt. W. J., 1st Buffs. 
Sidey, Lance-Cpl. Ernest Radford, Royal Irish 

Rifles. 
Silvester, Wireless Operator William Henry, R.N. 
Simpson, Ernest Knott, R.N. 
Simpson, Private William Ernest, 7th East Kent. 
Skeet, Private George Victor, Queen's West Surrey. 
Skerritt, Private Edward John, Australian 

Infantry. 
Smart, Lieut. Eustace Fowler, 7th Leicestershire. 
Smith, Cpl. George, 13th Batt. Australian Infantry. 
Smith, Private Mark Sidney, i/5th Buffs. 
Spearpoint, Private James, 8th Canadians. 
SpearpoinT, Private William, 6th Buffs. 
Spickett, Private Robert Alfred, 2nd Queen's R.W. 

Surrey. 
Standing, Quartermaster G. Thomas, R.N. 
Standing, Sergt. Thomas Richard, Royal West 

Kent. 
Stay, Private Henry Richard, East Kent Yeomanry. 
Stokes, Private Arthur Charles, Royal Fusiliers. 
Stokes, Pioneer Charles Lewis, R.E. 
Stokes, Private Frederick, 12th London Regt. 



250 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

Streatfeild, Sec-Lieut. Thomas Basil Maryon, 

Royal West Kent. 
Strood, Lieut. Percy Samson, ist Canadian M.R. 
Strutt, Private Henniker William, 20th Hussars. 
Summerfield, Private Jack, ist Queen's R.W. 

Surrey. 
Summers, Private Frederick James, R.A.O.C. 
Swain, Cpl. Leslie, 47th Batt. Canadians. 
Swift, Private Cecil Herbert, 6th East York. 

Taylor, Sec-Lieut. Frederick Charles, R.A.F. 
Taylor, Seaman Frederick John, R.N. 
Taylor, Private Fredeiick John, 4th Buffs. 
Taylor, Private John William, nth Royal Fusiliers. 
Taylor, Private Thomas Henry, R. M.L.I 
Thomson, Private Alfred, The Buffs. 
Thornbee, Private Cecil, M.G.C. Cavalry. 
Thurlow, Private John Wilson, i/ic;th London 

Regt. 
Tiddy, Private John, Grenadier Guards. 
Tribe, Private Ernest Henry, 18th Middlesex. 
Trice, Sergt. F. R., Royal Fusiliers. 
Tritton, Private Cecil John, 7th Buffs. 
Tuffe, Charles James, "Drake" Batt. R.N.D. 
Tull, Sec-Lieut Walter D., 17th Middlesex. 
Tumber, Seaman Victor John, R.N. 
Tupper, Stoker Petty Officer Ernest, R.N. 
Tutt, Lance-Cpl. George William, 2nd Buffs. 
Tutt, Cpl. Stephen Charles, 2nd Queen's. 

Upton, Sergt. Philip Charles, D.C.M., 7th Buffs. 
Upton, Sergt. William George, D.C.M., M.M., M.G.C. 



ROLL OF HONOUR. 25 1 

Varney, Signaller J. W. L., R.N.V.R. 

Vinnicombe, Private Harry Verrier, Australian 

Imp. Forces. 
Vinnicombe, Lieut. Leslie, 2nd Devonshire. 

Waddell, Private John Alfred, 7th Bedford. 
Waddell, Private William George, 17th Royal 

Fusiliers. 
Walter, Sapper Frank, R.E. 
Walter, Major William Frederick, Lancashire 

Fusiliers. 
Wampach, Driver Cyril C. J., R.F.A. 
Ward, Cpl. William Henry, R.F.A. 
Warman, Private William R. H., The Buffs. 
Webb, Cpl. John Morris, 26th Royal Fusiliers. 
Webster, Lance-Cpl. Clement Clair, 1st Buffs. 
Weller, Lance-Cpl Sidney, 2nd Grenadier Guards. 
Whitehead, Cpl. Archibald, A.S.C., M.T. 
Whittall, Sec Lieut. Garth, R.A.F 
Wilkinson, Sec-Lieut. R. Bruce, Loyal North 

Lancashire. 
Williams, Sergt. Arthur Irvine, R.A.M.C. 
Williams, Private Henry George, 3rd Batt. 

Canadian Infantry. 
Willis, Driver A., R.F.A. 
Willis, Sapper Frank Elgar, R.E. 
Willis, Sergt. Thomas James, R.F.A. 
Willis, Driver William Henry, R.F.A. 
Wills, Private John Edwin, 24th Royal Fusiliers. 
Willson, Lieut. Major Percy, 5th Canadians. 
Wilson, Sergt. Alfred, 2nd K.R.R.C. 
Winder, Private Cecil, 1st Buffs. 
Winton, Able Seaman Albert Edward, R.N. 



252 FOLKESTONE DURING THE WAR. 

Wise, Able Seaman Frederick Samuel, R.N. 
Wolsey, Co.-Q.-M.-S. Philip, R.E.K.M.R. 
Wood, Sergt. Alfred, M.M., ist Buffs 
Wood, Sec.-Lieut. Reginald Ewart, 3rd Buffs. 
Woods, Stoker Petty Officer Wilfred H., R.N. 
Woollett, Private George, Royal West Surrey. 
Woollett, Private Walter, Grenadier Guards. 
Wraight, Gunner Horace, R.F.A. 
Wraight, Lieut. Leslie Cecil, R.A.F. 
Wright, Rifleman Charles Stephen, K.R.R.C. 
Wright, Second-Engineer Harry, Government 

Transport. 
Wright, Sapper William Leslie, R.E. 
Wyatt, Lance-Cpl. George Alexander, 2nd Buffs. 
Wyborn, Private Norman Wm. A., ist Royal West 

Kent. 

Young, Gunner William George, R.G.A. 

' ' I heard a voice from Heaven saying : ' Blessed 
are the dead who die in the Lord. They rest from 
their labours and their works live after them. ' ' ' 



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